The authors evaluated the relationships between clinical and pharmacologic parameters and the Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokine network in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with differing doses of interferon-beta1a (IFN-beta1a). Their results show that low doses are ineffective but that high doses restore Th1 regulation of the maturation and activation of monocytes, T cells, immature dendritic cells, dendritic cells, and T regulatory cells for central and peripheral self-tolerance. Interaction between interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 p70, and IL-6 production appears to play an important role in the control of the maturation and activation states of dendritic cells and T regulatory cells, and is at the basis of the benefit of high doses. The results also indicate that the physiologic mechanisms involved in aging help immunologic reestablishment in IFNbeta-1a-treated patients. Finally, it would appear that the failure of IFNbeta-1a therapy to resolve multiple sclerosis completely is due to the suppression of IL-12 p70 mechanisms (responsible for the physiologic deletion of self-reactive cells) in activation conditions, probably by IFNbeta-1a itself.