• Corpus ID: 110985564

ICL: Taming the R&D Beast

  title={ICL: Taming the R\&D Beast},
  author={Martin Campbell-Kelly},
In this paper, it is argued that a successful mainframe-computer company of the 1960s needed a portfolio of five organizational capabilities: prudent management, R&D, manufacturing, marketing, and applications knowhow. In the post-World War II decade, a fragmented computer industry developed in the United Kingdom, with no single player having the full range of capabilities. Responding to the competition from IBM and other U.S. computer companies in the 1960s, a government-inspired series of… 
2 Citations

IBM Rebuilds Europe: The Curious Case of the Transnational Typewriter

In the decade after the Second World War IBM rebuilt its European operations as integrated, wholly owned subsidiaries of its World Trade Corporation, chartered in 1949. Long before the European

The rhetoric of Americanisation: social construction and the British computer industry in the Post-World War II period

This research seeks to understand the process of technological development in the UK and the specific role of a ‘rhetoric of Americanisation’ in that process. The concept of a ‘rhetoric of



Business Organization as a Coordination Problem: Toward a Dynamic Theory of the Boundaries of the Firm

Many writers have noted that, since 1873, the main thrust of mainstream theory has shifted away from the concerns of Adam Smith and the classicals [12]. This "marginalist" or neoclassical theory was

Innovating for Failure: Government Policy and the Early British Computer Industry

From computers to body scanners, from hovercraft to monoclonal antibodies, British researchers have been among the world's leaders in scientific discovery and invention. But British business has

IBM's Early Computers

This chronicles the transformation of IBM into a computer company in a remarkably few years, discussing projects that ended in frustration as well as the more successful ones, and providing a sense of the atmosphere, the people, and the decision-making processes involved during the company's rapid technological transformation.

Bull: A World-Wide Company Born in Europe

By the end of the 1980s, Bull, once again a company with a French shareholding majority, is now the leading European computer manufacturer and is ranked seventh worldwide.

An evolutionary theory of economic change

This study develops an evolutionary theory of the capabilities and behavior of business firms operating in a market environment. It includes both general discussion and the manipulation of specific

IBM's 360 and early 370 systems

The authors tell how System/360's widely-copied architecture came into being and how IBM failed in an effort to replace it ten years later with a bold development effort called FS, the Future System, along the way they detail the development of many computer innovations still in use.

IBM's Early Computers . By Charles J. Bashe, Lyle R. Johnson, John H. Palmer, and Emerson W. Pugh. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986. xviii + 716 pp. Charts, appendixes, notes, bibliography, and index. $27.50.

this British-colored lens is simply to6 great a strain—Walter Reuther has to become a counter-revolutionary, virtually selling out the much more classconscious Chrysler local leaders; the political

Inside the Think Tank: Advising the Cabinet 1971-1983

A study of the institution known as the Central Policy Review Staff, or "Think Tank", set up by Edward Heath and abolished by Margaret Thatcher, which was created to encourage ministers to anticipate

The American Challenge

••• Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber (1924 – 2006) was a WWII fighter pilot, the founder of the French newsweekly L’Express, author of several bestsellers, and deputy and President of the regional