IBM's Early Computers

  title={IBM's Early Computers},
  author={Charles J. Bashe and Lyle R. Johnson and John H. Palmer and Emerson W. Pugh},
In describing the technical experiences of one company from the beginning of the computer era, this book unfolds the challenges that IBM's research and development laboratories faced, the technological paths they chose, and how these choices affected the company and the computer industry. It chronicles the transformation of IBM into a computer company in a remarkably few years, discussing projects that ended in frustration as well as the more successful ones, and providing a sense of the… 
New Engineering Companies and the Evolution of The United States Computer Industry
The electronic digital computer industry emerged tentatively onto the world stage in 1946, with the founding of two engineering companies and the incorporation by several large firms of the new
Organizing the Electronic Century
This paper's title is an echo of Alfred Chandler's (2001) chronicle of the electronics industry, Inventing the Electronic Century. The paper attempts (A) a general reinterpretation of the pattern of
Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955
  • P. Ceruzzi
  • Computer Science
    IEEE Ann. Hist. Comput.
  • 1997
The author examines a few systems that reveal especially well the nature of this transition: the ensembles of punched card equipment used by L.J. Comrie (1932) and W. Eckert (1984) for scientific instead of business use.
A View From the 1960s: How the Software Industry Began
  • L. Johnson
  • Computer Science
    IEEE Ann. Hist. Comput.
  • 1998
The article tells the story of two of those early companies, Applied Data Research and Informatics, and the contributions they made to the creation of today's multibillion dollar software industry.
IBM and its Imitators: Organizational Capabilities and the Emergence of the International Computer Industry
In this paper I will examine the utility of the theory of organiza tional capabilities and evolutionary economic change, as conceptualized by Richard Nelson and Sidney Winter, for explaining the
A history of the IBM Systems Journal
This history describes how the IBM Systems Journal grew from a concept to its present form and authors, once exclusively from IBM, now come from wherever work is advancing computers and their uses.
Appropriation and Independence: BTM,Burroughs, and IBM at the Advent of the Computer Industry
The author seeks to refocus examination of BTM (and comparisons of it to IBM) within the context of an American competitor somewhat similar in size, customer base, and organizational capabilities in electronics to BTM: Burroughs Corporation.
ICL: Taming the R&D Beast
In this paper, it is argued that a successful mainframe-computer company of the 1960s needed a portfolio of five organizational capabilities: prudent management, R&D, manufacturing, marketing, and