The Role of Hysteroscopy in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Adenomyosis
In 1908, Cullen described the first cases of cystic adenomyosis in his textbook on adenomyomata. Although not very common, with the introduction of noninvasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3-D transvaginal ultrasound, an increasing number of cases have been reported. Patients primarily complain of severe dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Currently, it is unclear whether adenomyosis and, more specifically, cystic adenomyosis can be an underlying reason for impaired fertility and reproductive outcome. With the postponement of childbearing, the number of patients with adenomyosis and cystic adenomyosis seeking fertility treatment is increasing. Therefore, in these patients, uterine exploration should include not only the evaluation of the endometrial cavity but also the exploration of the sub-endometrial zone. Indirect imaging techniques, combined with office mini-hysteroscopy, offer the possibility of complete uterine exploration. Two patients with cystic adenomyosis are described in this paper: one had the chief complaint of menorrhagia and the other was referred for evaluation of infertility and severe dysmenorrhea. The aim of these case reports is to present hysteroscopic dissection and ablation of adenomyotic cysts as an alternative procedure for the surgical management of this condition.