Hypotheses relating to the function of the claustrum II: does the claustrum use frequency codes?

@article{Smythies2014HypothesesRT,
  title={Hypotheses relating to the function of the claustrum II: does the claustrum use frequency codes?},
  author={John Smythies and Lawrence Edelstein and Vilayanur S. Ramachandran},
  journal={Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience},
  year={2014},
  volume={8}
}
In previous papers (Smythies et al., 2012, 2014) we presented the general hypothesis that the claustrum may be concerned with information processing operations on synchronized gamma oscillations in the brain at three levels. At the first level (subhypothesis 1) it just magnifies the oscillations in cortico-claustral circuits. At the second level (subhypothesis 2) it may integrate these oscillations. At the third level (subhypothesis 3) it might process the contained spike codes. These previous… 
Hypotheses relating to the function of the claustrum
TLDR
It is proposed that the claustrum functions as a detector and integrator of synchrony in the axonal trains in its afferent inputs and may play a strong role in the control of interactive processes in different parts of the brain, and in theControl of voluntary behavior.
Synaptic Organization of the Neuronal Circuits of the Claustrum
TLDR
It is shown that the principal neurons of the claustrum, claustrocortical (ClaC) projection neurons, rarely form synaptic connections with one another and are unlikely to contribute to broad integration within the claUSTrum, and this cellular organization is typical of circuits sensitive to correlated inputs.
Single neurons and networks in the claustrum integrate input from widespread cortical sources
TLDR
It is shown that the claustrum is composed of excitatory and inhibitory cell types that are connected through intraclaustral excited synapses, especially between neurons with disparate projection targets.
Claustral Input to the Macaque Medial Posterior Parietal Cortex (Superior Parietal Lobule and Adjacent Areas).
TLDR
The projections from the claustrum to cortical areas within and adjacent to the superior parietal lobule were studied in 10 macaque monkeys, using retrograde tracers, computerized reconstructions, and quantitative methods to argue against a simple model whereby adjacency in the cortex determines adjacencies in the sectors of claustral origin of projections.
Anterior claustrum cells are responsive during behavior but not passive sensory stimulation
TLDR
The results suggest that the Gnb4+ cells in the anterior claustrum do not represent passively presented sensory stimuli; rather, these cells are strongly engaged during behavior associated with sensory-motor transformations.
The claustrum-medial prefrontal cortex network controls attentional set-shifting
TLDR
It is proposed that the CLA controls the reorganization of mPFC ensembles to enable attentional set-shifting, emphasizing a potential role of the CLA-mPFC network in attentional dysfunctions.
A comprehensive protocol for manual segmentation of the human claustrum and its sub-regions using high-resolution MRI
TLDR
A comprehensive manual segmentation protocol to delineate Cl based on a cellular level brain atlas is developed and it is required to assess the reliability of the protocol so that it can be used for future anatomical studies of neuropsychiatric disorders, including epilepsy and schizophrenia.
New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus-Related Claustral Hyperintensities
A 21-year-old woman presented with new-onset refractory status epilepticus after 5 days of fever. Orofacial myoclonus appeared on each attempt to stop sedation (Video). Blood/CSF analyses in search
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