Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and bipolar disorder.

Abstract

There is robust evidence demonstrating abnormalities of the HPA axis in bipolar disorder. Hypercortisolism may be central to the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms and cognitive deficits, which may in turn result from neurocytotoxic effects of raised cortisol levels. Manic episodes may be preceded by increased ACTH and cortisol levels, leading to cognitive… (More)

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