Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function and the Metabolic Syndrome X of Obesity

@article{Gohil2001HypothalamicPituitaryAdrenalAF,
  title={Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function and the Metabolic Syndrome X of Obesity},
  author={B. Gohil and L. Rosenblum and J. Coplan and J. Kral},
  journal={CNS Spectrums},
  year={2001},
  volume={6},
  pages={581 - 589}
}
Abstract Obesity has negative health consequences related to fat distribution, particularly the central or visceral accumulation of fat. The major complications associated with visceral obesity, termed the “Metabolic Syndrome of Obesity,” or “Syndrome X,” are type II diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. As with certain mood disorders, the syndrome may be a consequence of neuroendocrine perturbations typically associated with chronic stress. Our work with bonnet macaque monkeys provides an… Expand
Metabolic syndrome and neurometabolic asymmetry of hippocampus in adult bonnet monkeys
TLDR
Juvenile csf-CRF levels predict adult visceral obesity and hippocampal asymmetry supporting the hypothesis that metabolic syndrome in adults may be related to early life stress, and demonstrates asymmetrical hippocampal alterations related to obesity. Expand
DIABETES MELLITUS, OBESITY, HYPERTENSION: RISK FACTORS FOR METABOLIC SYNDROME
The Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a combination of interrelated metabolic abnormalities that significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM2) and Obesity. BasedExpand
The pathogenesis of obesity: Stress and the brain-gut axis.
  • J. Kral
  • Medicine
  • Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
  • 2005
TLDR
It is proposed that among mammals, man has demonstrated the most advanced capacity for adaptation to nutritional challenges and that any challenge to the nutritional integrity of any form of life is the most important stressor and the ultimate stimulus for evolutionary adaptation. Expand
Vagal Nerve Function in Obesity: Therapeutic Implications
TLDR
The preponderance of evidence supported by laboratory and clinical mechanistic studies interrupting abdominal bi-directional vagal transmission demonstrates that the majority of patients report less “hunger” and lose weight. Expand
Treating diseases associated with metabolic syndrome
TLDR
A majority of studies carried out in animal models shows that Stevia possesses hypotensive, lipid-lowering, hypoglycemic, insulin-sensitizing, prebiotic, and bacteriostatic properties, which are worthy of extensive clinical validation in future trials. Expand
Mood disorders are associated with the reduction of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the hypocampus in rats submitted to the hipercaloric diet
TLDR
It is demonstrated that a hypercaloric diet induced increase in adipose tissue concentration in young rats was associated with reduced hippocampal BDNF expression and resulted in an increase in depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. Expand
Is Chronic Inflammation a Possible Cause of Obesity-Related Depression?
TLDR
It seems that circulating adipokines did not exert influence on depression levels in obese women. Expand
The Effect of Chronic Inflammation and Oxidative and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Course of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Therapy
TLDR
This review focused on etiopathology of MetS, especially on the crosstalk between chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and ER stress and their effect on MetS-related disease occurrence, as well as future perspectives of cellular therapies. Expand
Metabolic and hormonal control of the desire for food and sex: Implications for obesity and eating disorders
TLDR
Understanding of obesity and eating disorders will be enriched by the study of the choice between ingestive and reproductive behaviors and by a renewed attention to "reproductive" hormones such as gonadal steroids and hypothalamic releasing hormones. Expand
6 – Energy Partitioning, Ingestive Behavior, and Reproductive Success
TLDR
This chapter describes the link to reproduction in terms of three levels of organization: primary metabolic sensory signals generated by the oxidation of metabolic fuels, hormones that act as mediators between the metabolic stimulus and the central effectors, and hormones that modulate the metabolism stimulus. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 64 REFERENCES
The metabolic syndrome — a neuroendocrine disorder?
TLDR
A complex neuroendocrine background to the metabolic syndrome is suggested, where the kinetics of the regulation of the HPA axis play a central role. Expand
The role of stress and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome: neuro-endocrine and target tissue-related causes
  • G. Chrousos
  • Medicine
  • International Journal of Obesity
  • 2000
TLDR
Stress-induced hypercortisolism and visceral obesity and their cardiovascular and other sequelae increase the all-cause mortality risk of affected subjects by 2–3-fold and curtail their life expectancy by several years. Expand
Elevated plasma cortisol concentrations: a link between low birth weight and the insulin resistance syndrome?
TLDR
This study provides the first evidence that intrauterine programming of the HPAA may be a mechanism underlying the association between low birth weight and the insulin resistance syndrome in adult life and suggests that plasma concentrations of cortisol within the normal range could have an important effect on blood pressure and glucose tolerance. Expand
Metabolic Implications of Body Fat Distribution
TLDR
It is hypothesized that free fatty acids and testosterone might provide a background not only to a defense reaction and primary hypertension, suggested previously, but also to a defeat reaction, which contributes to an endocrine aberration leading to metabolic aberrations and visceral fat accumulation, which in turn leads to disease. Expand
Metabolic correlates of eating behavior in severe obesity
TLDR
Increased eating rates in severely obese men and women with central fat distribution were shown to be associated with fatty liver and elevated serum lipids, and may be a determinant of the metabolic syndrome. Expand
The Metabolic Syndrome X
  • B. Hansen
  • Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1999
The Metabolic Syndrome X is a “work-in-progress,” with its chosen designation, features, causes, and treatments all in a dynamic period of expanded thinking and investigation. In the late 1940s andExpand
Pathophysiology of obesity
  • M. Lean
  • Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • 2000
TLDR
The greatest challenge for public health is to develop effective preventive measures, recognizing that BMI > 25 kg/m2 before the age of 20 years is a very strong predictor of obesity and ill health in adulthood. Expand
Role of stress in the etiology and treatment of diabetes mellitus.
TLDR
It is concluded that further research is needed to establish the importance of behavioral factors in the etiology and management of diabetes, and several areas of methodologic improvement are suggested. Expand
Persistent elevations of cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of corticotropin-releasing factor in adult nonhuman primates exposed to early-life stressors: implications for the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders.
TLDR
Grown nonhuman primates who were exposed as infants to adverse early rearing conditions were studied to determine if long-term alterations of CRF neuronal systems had occurred following the early stressor. Expand
Mental distress, obesity and body fat distribution in middle-aged men.
TLDR
It was concluded that in contrast to BMI, the WHR is associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety with associated sleep disturbances, as well as psychosomatic symptoms and dissatisfaction. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...