Hypothalamic Distribution, Adenohypophyseal Receptor Expression, and Ligand Functionality of RFamide-Related Peptide 3 in the Mare During the Breeding and Nonbreeding Seasons1

@inproceedings{Thorson2014HypothalamicDA,
  title={Hypothalamic Distribution, Adenohypophyseal Receptor Expression, and Ligand Functionality of RFamide-Related Peptide 3 in the Mare During the Breeding and Nonbreeding Seasons1},
  author={J. F. Thorson and L. Prezotto and R. Cardoso and S. M. Sharpton and J. Edwards and T. Welsh and P. Riggs and A. Caraty and M. Amstalden and G. Williams},
  booktitle={Biology of reproduction},
  year={2014}
}
ABSTRACT RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP3), the mammalian homologue of avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, has been shown to negatively regulate the secretion of LH and may contribute to reproductive seasonality in some species. Herein, we examined the presence and potential role of the RFRP3-signaling system in regulating LH secretion in the mare during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Hypothalamic NPVF mRNA (the precursor mRNA for RFRP3) was detected at the level of the dorsomedial… Expand
Relationship of neuropeptide FF receptors with pubertal maturation of gilts†
TLDR
Results indicate that an RFRP system is present in the pig and that NPFFR2 is important for pubertal onset in gilts, and it is not clear if this regulation involves major control of LH secretion or another unknown mechanism. Expand
RFamide peptides, the novel regulators of mammalian HPG axis: A review
The RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs) are the group of neuropeptides synthesized predominantly from the hypothalamus that negatively affects the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadalExpand
Expression of regulatory neuropeptides in the hypothalamus of red deer (Cervus elaphus) reveals anomalous relationships in the seasonal control of appetite and reproduction.
TLDR
The results support a role for kisspeptin as an important stimulatory regulator of seasonal breeding in deer, as in other species, but suggest a lack of involvement of GnIH in the seasonality of reproduction in deer. Expand
RFamide‐related peptide 3 and gonadotropin‐releasing hormone‐II are autocrine–paracrine regulators of testicular function in the boar
TLDR
The primary function of RFRP3 and GnRH‐II in the boar appears to be autocrine–paracrine inhibition and stimulation, respectively, of testosterone secretion within the testis. Expand
The role of RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP3) in regulation of the neuroendocrine reproductive and growth axes of the boar.
TLDR
It is concluded that R FRP3 can act to suppress LH secretion in some boars, but the minimal and varied response between animals does not strongly support the idea that RFRP3 is a potent hypohysiotropic hormone in the pig. Expand
No Evidence That RFamide-Related Peptide 3 Directly Modulates LH Secretion in the Ewe.
TLDR
The data in this study are more consistent with the concept that RFRP-3 has no direct effect on LH secretion in ewes and that RF9Effect on LH release is likely not RFRp-3 receptor mediated. Expand
Regulation of LH secretion by RFRP-3 – From the hypothalamus to the pituitary
TLDR
The latest evidence related to the effects of RFRP-3 neurons in regulating LH secretion by acting on kisspeptin neurons, GnRH neurons, and the pituitary is collected and the potential role of the timely reduction of R FRPs in the modulation of the preovulatory LH surge is discussed. Expand
Dual Actions of Mammalian and Piscine Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormones, RFamide-Related Peptides and LPXRFamide Peptides, in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis
TLDR
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone action in the HPG axis is modulated by sex-steroid concentration, the action of neuroestrogen synthesized by the activity of aromatase stimulated by GnIH, estrogen membrane receptor, heteromerization and internalization of GnIh, GnRH, and estrogen membrane receptors. Expand
An integrative view of mammalian seasonal neuroendocrinology
TLDR
The neuroendocrine underpinnings of seasonality are reviewed, two populations of hypothalamic neurones, which produce the RF‐amide neuropeptides kisspeptin and RFRP3 (RF‐amide related peptide 3), are plausible relays between TH and the gonadotrophin‐releasing hormone‐pituitary‐gonadal axis. Expand
The Role of GnIH in Biological Rhythms and Social Behaviors
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was first discovered in the Japanese quail, and peptides with a C-terminal LPXRFamide sequence, the signature protein structure defining GnIH orthologs, areExpand
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Variation in kisspeptin and RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) expression and terminal connections to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the brain: a novel medium for seasonal breeding in the sheep.
TLDR
It is proposed that the two RFamide peptides, kisspeptin and RFRP, act in concert, with opposing effects, to regulate the activity of GnRH neurons across the seasons, leading to the annual change in fertility and the cyclical seasonal transition from nonbreeding to breeding season. Expand
Potent action of RFamide-related peptide-3 on pituitary gonadotropes indicative of a hypophysiotropic role in the negative regulation of gonadotropin secretion.
TLDR
Data indicate that RFRP-3 is a specific and potent mammalian gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone, and that it acts upon pituitary gonadotropic gland function to reduce GnRH-stimulated gonADotropin secretion. Expand
Cells expressing RFamide-related peptide-1/3, the mammalian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone orthologs, are not hypophysiotropic neuroendocrine neurons in the rat.
TLDR
Observations suggest that RFRP-3 is not a hypophysiotropic neuroendocrine hormone in rats. Expand
Characterization of the inhibitory roles of RFRP3, the mammalian ortholog of GnIH, in the control of gonadotropin secretion in the rat: in vivo and in vitro studies.
TLDR
Results support a putative inhibitory role of RFRP3 as ortholog of GnIH in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion in mammals, which appears to involve direct pituitary actions as well as potential central (hypothalamic) effects. Expand
Distribution of a novel avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone in the quail brain
TLDR
Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the concentration of GnIH in the diencephalon was greater than that in the mesencephalon without sex difference, suggesting that GnIIH may participate not only in neuroendocrine functions, but also in behavioral and autonomic mechanisms. Expand
Characterization of the potent gonadotropin-releasing activity of RF9, a selective antagonist of RF-amide-related peptides and neuropeptide FF receptors: physiological and pharmacological implications.
TLDR
It is shown that RF9 possesses very strong gonadotropin-releasing activities in vivo, the first to disclose the potent gonadotropic activity of RF9, a selective antagonist of RFRP (and NPFF) receptors. Expand
Estradiol down-regulates RF-amide-related peptide (RFRP) expression in the mouse hypothalamus.
TLDR
Results of these studies indicate that RFRP is a negatively estradiol-regulated neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in mice, and the estrogenic down-regulation of R FRP expression may contribute to estrogen feedback to the reproductive axis. Expand
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TLDR
It is shown that melatonin originating from the pineal gland and eyes induces GnIH expression in the quail brain, the first demonstration, to the authors' knowledge, of a direct action of melatonin on neuropeptide induction in any vertebrate class. Expand
Effect of RF-amide-related peptide-3 on luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis and secretion in ovine pituitary gonadotropes.
TLDR
It is concluded that RFRP-3 acts on the pituitary gonadotropes to inhibit synthesis of the gonadotropic hormone, and this effect may be mediated by a reduction in the GnRH-stimulated second messenger phospho-ERK-1/2. Expand
Identification, expression, and physiological functions of Siberian hamster gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone.
TLDR
The results suggest that GnIH peptides fine tune LH levels via its receptor expressed in GnRH-ir neurons in an opposing fashion across the seasons in Siberian hamsters. Expand
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