A 54-year-old male was admitted because of dyspnea on exercise. His peripheral blood revealed pancytopenia with severely hypoplastic bone marrow. Bone marrow aspiration showed a marked hypocellular marrow with 62.4% of blast cells. Cytochemical studies showed that peroxidase activity, alpha-nephtyl buthylate esterase activity and PAS reaction were negative, and that only ASD-chroloacetate esterase activity was positive. Surface marker analysis of blast cells showed positive result for CD5, 7, 33 and 34 antigens. The T-cell receptor beta gene was rearranged, but the immunoglobulin H chain gene showed a germ line configuration. Terminal Deoxynucleotydyl Transferase (TdT) was positive, but cellular surface and cytoplasmic immunoglobulin were not recognized. A diagnosis of hypoplastic mixed lineage leukemia was made and treated with low dose cytosine arabinoside, he resulted in complete remission. The relation between hypoplastic leukemia, AML-M0 and mixed lineage leukemia was also discussed.