Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: new insights.

  title={Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: new insights.},
  author={Paul D. Grossfeld},
  journal={Circulation research},
  volume={100 9},
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is one of the most severe congenital heart defects, accounting for 20% to 25% of mortality in infants born with congenital heart disease. In the United States, 2000 infants are born each year with HLHS.1 To date, there is a paucity of studies that define the underlying genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms of HLHS.2–4 Most cases of HLHS are thought to arise secondarily because of decreased flow into the developing embryonic left ventricle, although in… CONTINUE READING