From a parasite viewpoint, therefore, hypobiosis is a most useful life cycle adaptation to ensure persistence and has been reported in most of the important nematode species parasitizing sheep in North America. It facilitates the synchronization of the nematode life cycle to changing host and environmental conditions. It also enables the parasite to have available large numbers of infective forms at points in the host life cycle that coincide with the presence of susceptible neonates, thus ensuring transmission. The accompanying periparturient rise seen with many of these species following development of hypobiotic larvae has very important implications for the planning of control procedures. Because it appears to be the major source of pasture contamination early in the grazing season, it is the prime source of infection for the lambs. These lambs can in turn serve to augment pasture contamination, leading to very heavy levels of pasture infectivity in late summer and fall. By scheduling anthelmintic treatments so as to suppress this rise in egg counts, pasture contamination can be kept to a minimum. More effective, less frequent dosing with anthelmintics is needed.