Hypnotic manipulation of effort sense during dynamic exercise: cardiovascular responses and brain activation.

  title={Hypnotic manipulation of effort sense during dynamic exercise: cardiovascular responses and brain activation.},
  author={Jon W. Williamson and R. W. Mccoll and Dana Mathews and Jere H. Mitchell and Peter Bernard Raven and William P. Morgan},
  journal={Journal of applied physiology},
  volume={90 4},
The purpose of this investigation was to hypnotically manipulate effort sense during dynamic exercise and determine whether cerebral cortical structures previously implicated in the central modulation of cardiovascular responses were activated. Six healthy volunteers (4 women, 2 men) screened for high hypnotizability were studied on 3 separate days during constant-load exercise under three hypnotic conditions involving cycling on a 1) perceived level grade, 2) perceived downhill grade, and 3… 

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