Hypnotic manipulation of effort sense during dynamic exercise: cardiovascular responses and brain activation.

@article{Williamson2001HypnoticMO,
  title={Hypnotic manipulation of effort sense during dynamic exercise: cardiovascular responses and brain activation.},
  author={Jon W. Williamson and R. W. Mccoll and Dana Mathews and Jere H. Mitchell and Peter Bernard Raven and William P. Morgan},
  journal={Journal of applied physiology},
  year={2001},
  volume={90 4},
  pages={
          1392-9
        }
}
The purpose of this investigation was to hypnotically manipulate effort sense during dynamic exercise and determine whether cerebral cortical structures previously implicated in the central modulation of cardiovascular responses were activated. Six healthy volunteers (4 women, 2 men) screened for high hypnotizability were studied on 3 separate days during constant-load exercise under three hypnotic conditions involving cycling on a 1) perceived level grade, 2) perceived downhill grade, and 3… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Brain activation by central command during actual and imagined handgrip under hypnosis.

Findings suggest that cardiovascular responses elicited during imagined exercise involve central activation of insular and anterior cingulate cortexes, independent of muscle afferent feedback; these structures appear to have key roles in the central modulation of cardiovascular responses.

Evidence for central command activation of the human insular cortex during exercise.

Findings provide evidence that there are rCBF changes within regions of the insular and anterior cingulate cortexes related to central command per se during handgrip exercise, independent of metaboreflex activation and blood pressure elevation.

Perceived exertion is not necessarily associated with altered brain activity during exercise.

Results indicated that perceived exertion was not necessarily associated with prefrontal cortex activation during exercise, and oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex during Ex-Vib did not significantly differ from that during Ex (p>0.05).

Psychological and psychophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of meditation during moderate-intensity exercise

ABSTRACT The present experiment sought to further understanding of the psychological and psychophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of a single session of audio-guided meditation during

Effect of hypnotic suggestion on knee extensor neuromuscular properties in resting and fatigued states

Hypnotic suggestions did not alter neuromuscular properties of the knee extensor muscles under resting condition or during/after exercise, suggesting that hypnosis-induced improvement in exercise performance and enhanced corticospinal excitability might be limited to highly susceptible participants.

Neurohumoral responses during prolonged exercise in humans.

The present findings indicate that the brain has an increased need for carbohydrates during recovery from strenuous exercise, whereas enhanced perception of effort as observed during exercise with hyperthermia was not related to alterations in the cerebral balances of dopamine or tryptophan.

Cardiorespiratory Control: Hypnosis and Perceived Exertion

Thirty years after William P. Morgan's initial psycho-physical investigation, the advent of high resolution brain imaging enabled Williamson, Mitchell, Raven, and Morgan to identify specific cortical structures involved in the neural control of the cardiorespiratory system.

Identifying cardiorespiratory neurocircuitry involved in central command during exercise in humans

Local field potentials were directly recorded in a number of ‘deep’ brain nuclei during an exercise task designed to dissociate the exercise from peripheral feedback mechanisms to provide direct electrophysiological evidence highlighting the PAG as an important subcortical area in the neural circuitry of the cardiorespiratory response to exercise.

Improving Cycling Performance: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increases Time to Exhaustion in Cycling

It is concluded that anodal tDCS increases exercise tolerance in a cycling-based, constant-load exercise test, performed at 80% of peak power, in the absence of changes in physiological and perceptual variables.

Motor cortex tDCS does not modulate perceived exertion within multiple-sets of resistance exercises

BACKGROUND: Recent evidences have shown that the motor cortex (MC) may influence the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Given the potential role of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 43 REFERENCES

Activation of the insular cortex is affected by the intensity of exercise.

The results suggest that the magnitude of insular activation varies with the intensity of exercise, which may be further related to the level of perceived effort or central command.

Hypnotic perturbation of perceived exertion: ventilatory consequences.

The suggestion of heavy work in both the hypnotic and waking states was associated with an increase in ventilation, and this elevation persisted through the following five minutes of work despite the fact that subsequent work was perceived as being less difficult.

Activation of the Insular Cortex During Dynamic Exercise in Humans

Findings provide the first evidence of insular activation during dynamic exercise in humans, suggesting that the left insular cortex may serve as a site for cortical regulation of cardiac autonomic (parasympathetic) activity.

PERCEPTUAL AND METABOLIC RESPONSIVITY TO STANDARD BICYCLE ERGOMETRY FOLLOWING VARIOUS HYPNOTIC SUGGESTIONS

Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of various hypnotic suggestions on perceptual and metabolic responses to a standard bicycle ergometer task. 5 Ss exercised for

Effects of partial neuromuscular blockade on carotid baroreflex function during exercise in humans

It is suggested that central command actively resets the carotid baroreflex during dynamic and static exercise.

Circulatory Effects of Suggested Leg Exercise and Fear Induced Under Hypnotic State1

Suggestion of leg exercise resulted in marked increases of total ventilation and cardiac output and can be explained by a centrally induced vasodilatation in the muscles in connection with increased total ventilation.

Role of the insular cortex in the modulation of baroreflex sensitivity.

  • T. SalehB. Connell
  • Biology
    American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • 1998
The results suggest that the insular cortex modulates the cardiac baroreflex through a modulation of parasympathetic output.

Role of sensory nerves in the cardiovascular and respiratory changes with isometric forearm exercise in man.

The results suggest that cardiovascular and respiratory changes during isometric exercise can occur without involvement of muscle sensory nerves and that pain contributes substantially to the increase in respiration.

The exercise pressor reflex: its cardiovascular effects, afferent mechanisms, and central pathways.

The cardiovascular changes that occur during induced muscular con­ tractions are described and the skeletal muscle afferents and central pathways responsible for this reflex are examined.

Somatosensory event-related potential changes to painful stimuli during hypnotic analgesia: anterior cingulate cortex and anterior temporal cortex intracranial recordings.