Hyperventilation-induced panic attacks in panic disorder with agoraphobia

@article{Maddock1991HyperventilationinducedPA,
  title={Hyperventilation-induced panic attacks in panic disorder with agoraphobia},
  author={Richard J. Maddock and Cameron S. Carter},
  journal={Biological Psychiatry},
  year={1991},
  volume={29},
  pages={843-854}
}
Hyperventilation and panic attacks
Panic disorder and hyperventilation.
TLDR
The panic disorder group was more sensitive to hyperventilation than normal volunteers and may be a useful and simple test for validating the diagnosis in some specific panic disorder patients.
Psychophysiological reactions to two levels of voluntary hyperventilation in panic disorder.
Hyperventilation in Panic Disorder and Social Phobia
TLDR
The induction of panic attacks by voluntary hyperventilation may be an easy and useful test for validating the diagnosis in some specific panic disorder patients.
Hyperventilation in panic disorder patients and healthy first-degree relatives.
TLDR
The data suggest that there is no association between a family history of panic disorder and hyperreactivity to an acute hyperventilating challenge test and the panic disorder patients were more sensitive to hyperventilation than first-degree relatives and normal volunteers.
Physiological and Cognitive Provocation of Panic Attacks in Panic Disorder Patients
TLDR
Investigating the panic provocation potential of hyperventilation and a purely cognitive manipulation among panic disorder patients and normal controls found no significant predictor was found of response to the two challenges.
Slow Recovery From Voluntary Hyperventilation in Panic Disorder
TLDR
PD and SP patients report more distress than controls to equal amounts of hypocapnia, but PD differ from SP patients and controls in having slower symptomatic and physiological recovery.
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References

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Hyperventilation: Is It a Cause of Panic Attacks?
During transcutaneous PCO2 (P tcCO2) monitoring of 15 freely ambulant patients suffering from panic attacks, all the patients experienced a typical attack. Seven were identified as hyperventilators,
Hyperventilation and panic disorder.
Ventilatory physiology of patients with panic disorder.
TLDR
Patients with panic disorder may have hypersensitive CO2 receptors that, when triggered, evoke a subjective panic associated with an exaggerated ventilatory response and consequent hypocapnic alkalosis.
Lactate provocation of panic attacks. I. Clinical and behavioral findings.
TLDR
It is suggested that lactate acts, by as yet unidentified mechanisms, to trigger the same panic attacks as occur spontaneously in vulnerable persons.
Respiratory Control in the Treatment of Panic Attacks:
TLDR
Nine patients who experienced phobic and/or non-phobic panic attacks were given a cognitive-behavioural treatment based on the supposition that catastrophic interpretations of sensations produced by hyperventilation played an important role in their attacks.
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