Prevalence, Awareness, and Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Multicenter Study in Brazil
OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in a population-representative sample of adults with type 1 diabetes and comparable nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In 2000-2002, the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes Study enrolled 1,416 individuals aged 19-56 years with no known history of coronary artery disease: 652 type 1 diabetic patients (46% male, mean age 37 years) and 764 nondiabetic control subjects (50% male, mean age 39 years). Subjects were asked if they had been told by a physician that they had hypertension or were on a blood pressure medication. Blood pressure was measured using standardized Joint National Committee (JNC) protocol. RESULTS Type 1 diabetic subjects, compared with nondiabetic subjects, had higher rates of hypertension prevalence (43 vs. 15%, P < 0.001), awareness (53 vs. 45%, P = 0.11), treatment (87 vs. 47%, P < 0.001), and control (55 vs. 32%, P < 0.001) for the JNC 6 goal (130/85 mmHg). Only 42% of all type 1 diabetic hypertensive subjects met the new JNC 7 goal (130/80 mmHg). Type 1 diabetic subjects had better blood pressure control (72 vs. 32%, P < 0.0001), using 140/90 mmHg as a common measure. The majority of treated subjects were on a single antihypertensive agent (75 vs. 64%). CONCLUSIONS Subjects with type 1 diabetes have higher rates of hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control than nondiabetic subjects. However, hypertension remains largely uncontrolled, even if treated in high-risk populations, such as type 1 diabetic subjects and undiagnosed individuals in the general population. Achieving more stringent blood pressure goals will require increased attention and may necessitate the use of multiple antihypertensive agents.