Hypertension‐Related Morbidity and Mortality in African Americans—Why We Need to Do Better

  title={Hypertension‐Related Morbidity and Mortality in African Americans—Why We Need to Do Better},
  author={Keith C. Ferdinand and Elijah Sounders},
  journal={The Journal of Clinical Hypertension},
Almost one third of adults in the United States have hypertension. Prevalence data among different racial or ethnic groups indicate that a disproportionate number of African Americans have hypertension compared with non‐Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans. Earlier onset of high blood pressure and greater severity of hypertension contribute to a greater burden of hypertensive target organ damage in African Americans and may be a factor in the shorter life expectancy of this population compared… 

Prompt, Aggressive BP Lowering in High‐Risk Patients

Evidence suggests that therapy with a calcium channel blocker and an inhibitor of the renin‐angiotensin system is one effective strategy for lowering blood pressure and improving outcomes in high‐risk patient populations.

Black-White Disparities in Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease and Associations with Hypertension

There is fair evidence that black patients referred for angiography are less likely than whites to have significant CAD, which has important implications for future research to examine explanations for this finding as well as the clinical and prognostic value of angiographic disease in blacks compared to whites.

Treatment of Hypertension Among African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

Although calcium channel blockers are often considered to be effective monotherapy for African Americans, persons using calcium channel blocker monotherapy were significantly less likely to be at target BP than persons using thiazide monotherapy.

Importance of the Hispanic heritage regarding diagnosis and management of hypertension

There is urgency not only in having a better understanding ofHTN among Hispanics, but also to examine the potential factors that may play a role in regulating the expression of HTN and its associated cardiovascular manifestations in this ethnic group.

The Efficacy and Tolerability of Nebivolol in Hypertensive African American Patients

Nebivolol monotherapy provides antihypertensive efficacy, with few significant adverse effects, in hypertensive African Americans.

Examining the Effects of Psychosocial Stress on the Hypertension Self-Management Behaviors of African American Women

Several stress-related barriers to hypertension management emerged including care-taker responsibilities and coexisting health conditions, which could prove instructive in developing interventions to help improve hypertensive African American women’s hypertension self-management behaviors.

The Effect of Nebivolol on Office Blood Pressure of Blacks Residing in Sub-Saharan Africa (A Pilot Study)

The efficacy and tolerability of highly selective beta-1 agent nebivolol in hypertensive Black patients residing in sub-Saharan Africa appears efficacious in Nigerian Africans with no negative metabolic effect and minimal side effect profile.

Risk Factors for Hypertension among African-born Immigrants in the United States

The results of the study revealed that length of stay or years in spent in the United States have a significant association with the development of essential HTN, which could be used to promote positive social change by identifying and assessing challenges in implementing intervention programs meant to assist in controlling essentialHTN among African-born immigrants and Black populations who are disproportionately affected by this condition.

Impact of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Graft Outcome Disparities in Black Kidney Transplant Recipients

It is demonstrated that NHB kidney transplant recipients have significantly higher rates of CVD risk factors and reduced CVDrisk control and these issues are likely partly related to medication nonadherence and meaningfully contribute to racial disparities for graft outcomes.



Effect of race on hypertension and antihypertensive therapy.

Differences in prevalence and pathophysiology have resulted in recommendations for differential therapeutic approaches in the treatment of hypertension, since diuretics and calcium channel blockers appear to be better suited to this population.

Management of high blood pressure in African Americans: consensus statement of the Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks.

The purpose of this consensus statement is to offer primary care providers a practical, evidence-based clinical tool for achieving blood pressure goals in African American patients.

Hypertension in Blacks: a literature review.

The burden of hypertension among Blacks is emphasized and the need for additional research is reminded to determine if culturally competent interventions are appropriate to prevent, treat, and control this disease within this population is reminded.

Treatment of Hypertension in African Americans and Latinos: The Effect of JNC VI on Urban Prescribing Practices

The authors concluded that in this cohort of hypertensive urban Latinos and African Americans, more than 40% of individuals were not being treated for hypertension and, despite the guidelines suggested in JNC VI, few individuals were being treating for their hypertension with diuretic monotherapy or β blockers as first‐choice drugs.

The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial: What More Have We Learned?

  • D. Sica
  • Medicine
    Journal of clinical hypertension
  • 2003
It is suggested that reduction in blood pressure to levels below those currently advocated for cardiovascular risk reduction, although a clearly attainable goal in this population, does not provide readily identifiable benefits to African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis.

Use of β ‐ Adrenergic Receptor Blockers in Blacks

In general, no racial differences in efficacy are noted when β‐blockers are used with diuretics as combination therapy for hypertension, and the highly selective β‐ blocker bisoprolol has been shown to be as effective as diuretic and is equally effective in black and nonblack patients with hypertension.

Hypertension in blacks.

Dietary electrolytes and blood pressure: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee.

Evidence for a positive association between sodium chloride (NaCl) intake and blood pressure is discussed and increasing evidence also suggests that dietary patterns associated with low intakes of potassium, calcium, and possibly magnesium also contribute to higher levels of blood pressure.

Use of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers in blacks.

In general, no racial differences in efficacy are noted when beta-blockers are used with diuretics as combination therapy for hypertension, and the highly selectivebeta-blocker bisoprolol has been shown to be as effective as diuretic and is equally effective in black and nonblack patients with hypertension.