Hyperprolactinemia and bone mineral density: the potential impact of antipsychotic agents

@article{Naidoo2003HyperprolactinemiaAB,
  title={Hyperprolactinemia and bone mineral density: the potential impact of antipsychotic agents},
  author={Umadevi Naidoo and Donald C. Goff and Anne Klibanski},
  journal={Psychoneuroendocrinology},
  year={2003},
  volume={28},
  pages={97-108}
}
The prevalence of schizophrenia is about 1% worldwide. Individuals with schizophrenia are at increased risk for osteoporosis and fractures for several reasons, including poor diet, lack of exercise, cigarette smoking, and polydipsia. Some antipsychotic medications may further increase the risk of fractures by causing dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, and falls. Studies in women with hyperprolactinemia resulting from pituitary tumors have demonstrated high rates of osteoporosis believed to… 
Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia in patients with schizophrenia: considerations in relation to bone mineral density.
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    Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing
  • 2009
TLDR
Osteoporosis secondary to antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia (i.e. raised prolactin levels) has received little attention, when compared with reports on metabolic syndrome for instance.
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TLDR
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TLDR
Contrary to the trend in the general population with osteopenia, hyperprolactinemia during treatment with antipsychotic drugs may be associated with a greater prevalence of low bone mass in men compared to women.
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TLDR
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TLDR
Comprehensive studies of bone dynamics in individuals with first-episode schizophrenia, as well as in patients treated with various current medications, are needed in order to characterise the problem(s) and then to develop relevant treatment and prevention strategies.
Effects of plasma magnesium and prolactin on quantitative ultrasound measurements of heel bone among schizophrenic patients
TLDR
There was no significant association found between reduced BUA levels and serum prolactin, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, NTX, thyroid stimulating hormone and parathyroid hormone levels, and this is in contrast with literature that has reported an association between bone mass and serum Prolactin levels, serum magnesium levels and type of received antipsychotics.
Clinical Implications of Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum or Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Recent Developments and Current Perspectives
TLDR
A comprehensive overview of antipsychotics and hyperprolactinemia is presented together with a review of emerging evidence about the short- and long-term health risks of hyper Prolactin elevation.
Effects of long-term prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication on bone mineral density in patients with schizophrenia
TLDR
Patients with schizophrenia on long-term prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication are at high risk of developing reduced bone mineral density as a consequence of hyperprolactinaemia-induced hypogonadism.
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