Hyperprolactinemia and bone

  title={Hyperprolactinemia and bone},
  author={Luigi di Filippo and Mauro Doga and Eugenia Resmini and Andrea Giustina},
Prolactin (PRL) has direct and indirect effects on bone metabolism. Experimental studies showed that in the presence of high PRL levels bone resorption was increased as well as bone formation was suppressed. Increased PRL levels in humans caused a reduction in sex hormone levels which turn may have detrimental effects on bone. Patients with hyperprolactinemia did have often decreased bone mineral density as well as an increased risk of fractures. Since PRL control may be relevant to bone health… 
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Prolactin — a pleiotropic factor in health and disease
This Review focuses on the newly discovered roles of prolactin in human health and disease, particularly its involvement in metabolic homeostasis including body weight control, adipose tissue, skin and hair follicles, pancreas, bone, the adrenal response to stress, the control of lactotroph cellHomeostasis and maternal behaviour.
Serum Prolactin and Bone Mineral Density in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review
A literature review of databases from inception until December 2018 for cross-sectional, case-control, prospective and retrospective studies analyzing correlations between serum prolactin and BMD measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or quantitative ultrasound at any skeletal site in people with schizophrenia concluded available studies cannot resolve the link between excess prolactIn and reduced BMD in schizophrenia.
Osteoporosis is accompanied by reduced CD274 expression in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
Findings supported the theory of an influence of CD274 on the regulation of bone metabolism and might be a promising target for further investigations of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and of cell-based therapies involving MSCs.
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Prolactin has an important role not only in tumorigenesis of the breast, but also in a number of hormonally responsive cancers such as prostate, ovarian and endometrial cancer, as well as pancreatic and lung cancer.
Kirenol inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents ovariectomized-induced osteoporosis via suppressing the Ca2+-NFATc1 and Cav-1 signaling pathways.
Kirenol suppresses osteoclastogenesis and the Cav-1/NFATc1 signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo and protects against OVX-induced osteoporosis.
Altered mastication adversely impacts morpho-functional features of the hippocampus: A systematic review on animal studies in three different experimental conditions involving the masticatory function
The literature reviewed agrees that a disturbed mastication is significantly associated with a reduced number of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in Cornu Ammonis (CA)1 and CA3, downregulation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), reduced synaptic activity, reduced neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus (DG), glial proliferation, and reduced performances in behavioural tests.
Mechanism of barley malt-dependent DRD2 to treat hyperprolactinemia based on UPLC-Q-TOF/MS and network pharmacology
The molecular mechanism of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2, a key target) in HPRL treatment with total alkaloids (effective substances) of barley malt was validated in a cell experiment and was identified as a major target of barley Malt-related H PRL treatment by network pharmacology.
Endocrinology of Bone and Growth Disorders


Pituitary diseases and bone.
Treatment of excess and defective pituitary hormone generally improves skeletal health, although some patients remain at high risk for fractures, necessitating treatment with bone-active drugs.
Pituitary Diseases and Bone
Treatment of pituitary hormone excess and deficiency generally improves skeletal health, although some patients remain at high risk of fractures, and treatment with bone-active drugs may become mandatory.
Risk of vertebral fractures in hypoparathyroidism
This review will deal with the various aspects of bone metabolism (turn-over, density, quality) in hypoparathyroidism, focusing on the few data available on therisk of fracture and in particular of morphometric vertebral fractures, the emerging way to assess actual skeletal fragility particularly in secondary forms of osteoporosis.
Effects of prolactin and estrogen deficiency in amenorrheic bone loss.
Multiple comparisons of clinical variables, serum hormone concentrations, and bone mass demonstrated a significant correlation between bone density and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels, which suggests a role for endogenous androgens in the maintenance of premenopausal bone mass.
Biomarkers of Bone Turnover and Bone Mineral Density in Hyperprolactinemic Amenorrheic Women
Treatment of hyperprolactinemia with bromocriptine restored normal values of bone formation and resorption markers and was associated with significantly decreased lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD), measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).
Bone density in amenorrheic women with and without hyperprolactinemia.
The presence of decreased bone mineral content in hyperprolactinemic patients suggests that PRL may have a direct effect on bone and may be another indication for early treatment of PRL-secreting pituitary tumors.
Decreased spinal mineral content in amenorrheic women.
Bone mass in the peripheral cortical bone was only slightly decreased from age-matched controls, but spinal trabecular bone was decreased 20% to 30%.
Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas.
Any process interfering with dopamine synthesis, its transport to the pituitary gland, or its action at the level of lactotroph dopamine receptors can cause hyperprolactinemia, and hyper Prolactinomas can have clinical effects not only on the reproductive axis.
Prolactin directly enhances bone turnover by raising osteoblast-expressed receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio.
It is found that hyperprolactinemia induced by anterior pituitary transplantation (AP), with or without ovariectomy (Ovx), had no detectable effect on bone mineral density and content measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).
Increase in bone mass after treatment of hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea.
This study studied 32 women with hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea prospectively for 12 to 72 months to investigate the effects of sustained hyperProlactinemia or return of gonadal function on bone mass.