Hyperparasitism: multitrophic ecology and behavior.

  title={Hyperparasitism: multitrophic ecology and behavior.},
  author={David J. Sullivan and Wolfgang V{\"o}lkl},
  journal={Annual review of entomology},
Hyperparasitoids are secondary insect parasitoids that develop at the expense of a primary parasitoid, thereby representing a highly evolved fourth trophic level. This review evaluates multitrophic relationships and hyperparasitoid ecology. First, hyperparasitoid communities of various taxa of phytophagous and predacious insects are described. Second, specific patterns of hyperparasitoid community organization and hyperparasitoid ecology are described in detail, using the aphid-parasitoid… CONTINUE READING
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