Hyperparasitism: multitrophic ecology and behavior.

@article{Sullivan1999HyperparasitismME,
  title={Hyperparasitism: multitrophic ecology and behavior.},
  author={David J. Sullivan and Wolfgang V{\"o}lkl},
  journal={Annual review of entomology},
  year={1999},
  volume={44},
  pages={291-315}
}
Hyperparasitoids are secondary insect parasitoids that develop at the expense of a primary parasitoid, thereby representing a highly evolved fourth trophic level. This review evaluates multitrophic relationships and hyperparasitoid ecology. First, hyperparasitoid communities of various taxa of phytophagous and predacious insects are described. Second, specific patterns of hyperparasitoid community organization and hyperparasitoid ecology are described in detail, using the aphid-parasitoid… CONTINUE READING
Recent Discussions
This paper has been referenced on Twitter 4 times over the past 90 days. VIEW TWEETS

From This Paper

Topics from this paper.

Citations

Publications citing this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 37 extracted citations

Similar Papers

Loading similar papers…