Hypericum perforatum: Pharmacokinetic, Mechanism of Action, Tolerability, and Clinical Drug–Drug Interactions

@article{Russo2014HypericumPP,
  title={Hypericum perforatum: Pharmacokinetic, Mechanism of Action, Tolerability, and Clinical Drug–Drug Interactions},
  author={Emilio Russo and Francesca Scicchitano and Benjamin J. Whalley and Carmela Mazzitello and M. Lurdes F. Ciriaco and Stefania Esposito and Marinella Patan{\`e} and Roy Upton and Michela Pugliese and Serafina Chimirri and Maria Mamm{\`i} and Caterina Palleria and Giovambattista De Sarro},
  journal={Phytotherapy Research},
  year={2014},
  volume={28}
}
Hypericum perforatum (HP) belongs to the Hypericaceae family and is one of the oldest used and most extensively investigated medicinal herbs. The medicinal form comprises the leaves and flowering tops of which the primary ingredients of interest are naphthodianthrones, xanthones, flavonoids, phloroglucinols (e.g. hyperforin), and hypericin. Although several constituents elicit pharmacological effects that are consistent with HP's antidepressant activity, no single mechanism of action underlying… 

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TLDR
Until now, the pharmacokinetic profile of the flavonoids in humans after oral administration of an alcoholic H. perforatum extract has been investigated in only one study, but more data are available for rutin and the aglycone quercetin after administration of pure substances or other flavonoid sources.

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TLDR
Some of the controversial evidence derived from clinical and experimental studies suggesting that H. perforatum exerts antidepressant-like actions are reviewed, and some of its side effects, such as nausea, rash, fatigue, restlessness, photosensitivity, acute neuropathy, and even episodes of mania and serotonergic syndrome when administered simultaneously with other antidepressant drugs are reviewed.

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TLDR
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TLDR
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