Hypericin--the facts about a controversial agent.

@article{Kubin2005HypericintheFA,
  title={Hypericin--the facts about a controversial agent.},
  author={A. Kubin and F. Wierrani and U. Burner and G. Alth and W. Gr{\"u}nberger},
  journal={Current pharmaceutical design},
  year={2005},
  volume={11 2},
  pages={
          233-53
        }
}
Hypericin is a naturally occurring substance found in the common St. John's Wort (Hypericum species) and can also be synthesized from the anthraquinone derivative emodin. As the main component of Hypericum perforatum, it has traditionally been used throughout the history of folk medicine. In the last three decades, hypericin has also become the subject of intensive biochemical research and is proving to be a multifunctional agent in drug and medicinal applications. Recent studies report… Expand
Hypericins as Potential Leads for New Therapeutics
TLDR
The aim of this review is to analyse the most recent advances in the chemistry and biological activities (in vitro and in vivo) of the pure naphthodianthrones, hypericin and pseudohypericin from H. perforatum. Expand
On the Mechanism of Action of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Hypericin: An In Silico Study Pointing to the Relevance of Janus Kinases Inhibition
TLDR
The capability ofhypericin, and some of its analogues and metabolites, to behave as ATP-competitive inhibitor is highlighted providing a likely mechanistic elucidation of anti-inflammatory activity of H. perforatum extracts containing hypericin and related compounds. Expand
Crystal structure of Hyp-1, a St. John's wort protein implicated in the biosynthesis of hypericin.
TLDR
A high-resolution crystal structure of Hyp-1 is reported, confirming that it indeed has a PR-10 fold, and illustrates a high degree of conformational adaptability of both interacting partners for efficient binding. Expand
Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components
TLDR
It has been demonstrated that H. perforatum extracts and several of its major molecular components have the ability to protect against toxic insults, either directly, through neuroprotective mechanisms, or indirectly, through is antioxidant properties. Expand
Hypericin, a medicinal compound from St. John's Wort, inhibits genotoxicity induced by mutagenic agents in V79 cells.
TLDR
The results demonstrate the non-photoactivated hypericin toxicological safety limits, its protective effect on DNA damage and provide a basis for future studies that may characterize better its chemopreventive mechanism. Expand
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Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John’s wort) is a medicinal plant widely utilized for the treatment of depression. The antidepressant activity is mainly attributed to the phenolic compounds hypericinsExpand
Hypericin in the Light and in the Dark: Two Sides of the Same Coin
TLDR
The main aim of this review is to summarize the benefits of photoactivated and non-activated hypericin, mainly in preclinical and clinical applications, and to uncover the “dark side” of this secondary metabolite, focusing on MDR mechanisms. Expand
A current update on phytochemistry, pharmacology and herb–drug interactions of Hypericum perforatum
TLDR
This review aims to highlight the ‘evidence-based’ therapeutic potential of aforementioned phytopharmaceutical, which would accelerate the contemporary pharmaceutical development of this traditional phytomedicine. Expand
Evaluation of the light-sensitive cytotoxicity of Hypericum perforatum extracts, fractions, and pure compounds.
TLDR
The absence of light-sensitive toxicity with the Hp extracts suggests that the hypericins were not playing a prominent role in the toxicity of the extracts. Expand
Hypericins: biotechnological production from cell and organ cultures
TLDR
This review describes the biotechnological approaches employed for the production of hypericins and focuses upon the challenges and future prospects. Expand
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TLDR
It is presented how an interdisciplinary approach supported by sophisticated techniques of optical spectroscopy and molecular modeling can be effectively applied for the identification of the specific binding sites of the drug in some biomacromolecules as well as for the determination of the physico-chemical mechanism of the biological activity of hypericin. Expand
Mode of Action of Hypericin as an Antiretroviral Agent and Other Relevant Findings
Hypericin (Hy), 4,5,7,4′,5′,7′-hexahydroxy 2,2′dimethyl-meso naphthodian-throne, is a naturally occurring, polycyclic aromatic dianthraquinone (Figure 1). The molecule assumes a planar configurationExpand
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Alternative pharmacologic mechanisms for Hypericum's antidepressant activity are critically reviewed and the possible importance of GABA receptor binding in the pharmacology of Hypericum is highlighted. Expand
Hypericin and pseudohypericin: pharmacokinetics and effects on photosensitivity in humans.
TLDR
Doses used in this study were higher than typical doses in current commercial preparations, frequency of side effects was equal to placebo medication and UV light sensitivity was not or only marginally increased, and there was no correlation between total hypericin plasma concentrations and photosensitivity. Expand
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TLDR
Data suggest that the proven safe drug hypericin may have potential as an antiglioma agent; clinical trials are suggested. Expand
Biochemical activities of extracts from Hypericum perforatum L. 5th communication: dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-product quantification by HPLC and inhibition by hypericins and flavonoids.
TLDR
The quantification of the enzymatic activity and the potential influence of inhibitors are reported using dopamine as substrate and product (noradrenaline) quantification by HPLC. Expand
Inhibition of benzodiazepine binding in vitro by amentoflavone, a constituent of various species of Hypericum.
TLDR
The experimental data demonstrate that amentoflavone, in contrast to hypericin, presents a very active compound with regard to the inhibition of [3H]-flumazenil binding in vitro and thus might be involved in the antidepressant effects of Hypericum perforatum extracts. Expand
Biochemical activities of extracts from Hypericum perforatum L. 1st Communication: inhibition of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase.
TLDR
The results of this investigation show that alcoholic extracts from Hypericum perforatum L. on the basis of total hypericin content inhibit dopamine-beta-hydroxylase with an IC50 of 0.1 mu mol/l; pure commercialhypericin inhibits with anIC50 of 21 mu mol/, and enzymes involved in the synthesis of dopamine from tyrosine are not influenced by hyperic in. Expand
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TLDR
Hyperforin, rather than hypericin as originally thought, has emerged as one of the major constituents responsible for antidepressant activity, and further research is required to determine which other constituents contribute to the antidepressant effect. Expand
Potentiation of hypericin and hypocrellin-induced phototoxicity by omeprazole.
TLDR
The hypothesis that the excited-state proton transfer and the consequent acidification of hypericin and hypocrellin environment could play a role in the biological activity of both agents is supported. Expand
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