Gestational diabetes and pregnancy outcomes - a systematic review of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) diagnostic criteria
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine associations of fasting C-peptide, body mass index (BMI), and maternal glucose with the risk of preeclampsia in a multicenter multinational study. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a secondary analysis of a blinded observational cohort study. Subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-32 weeks' gestation. Associations of preeclampsia with fasting C-peptide, BMI, and maternal glucose were assessed with the use of multiple logistic regression analyses and adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS Of 21,364 women who were included in the analyses, 5.2% had preeclampsia. Adjusted odds ratios for preeclampsia for 1 SD higher fasting C-peptide (0.87 ug/L), BMI (5.1 kg/m(2)), and fasting (6.9 mg/dL), 1-hour (30.9 mg/dL), and 2-hour plasma glucose (23.5 mg/dL) were 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.36), 1.60 (95% CI, 1.60-1.71), 1.08 (95% CI, 1.00-1.16), 1.19 (95% CI, 1.11-1.28), and 1.21 (95% CI,1.13-1.30), respectively. CONCLUSION Results indicate strong, independent associations of fasting C-peptide and BMI with preeclampsia. Maternal glucose levels (below diabetes mellitus) had weaker associations with preeclampsia, particularly after adjustment for fasting C-peptide and BMI.