Hypercorrection of high confidence errors: Prior testing both enhances delayed performance and blocks the return of the errors

@article{Metcalfe2014HypercorrectionOH,
  title={Hypercorrection of high confidence errors: Prior testing both enhances delayed performance and blocks the return of the errors},
  author={Janet Metcalfe and David B. Miele},
  journal={Journal of applied research in memory and cognition},
  year={2014},
  volume={3},
  pages={189-197}
}
  • J. MetcalfeD. Miele
  • Published 1 September 2014
  • Psychology
  • Journal of applied research in memory and cognition

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The hypercorrection effect persists over a week, but high-confidence errors return

Findings help to contextualize the hypercorrection effect within the broader memory literature by showing that high-confidence errors are more likely to be corrected, but they are also morelikely to be reproduced if the correct answer is forgotten.

The correction of errors committed with high confidence

Most theories predict that when people indicate that they are highly confident they are producing their strongest responses. Hence, if such a high confidence response is in error it should be

People's hypercorrection of high-confidence errors: did they know it all along?

  • J. MetcalfeB. Finn
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
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This study investigated the "knew it all along" explanation of the hypercorrection effect, and found that when people said that they knew it allAlong, they were right.

Errors committed with high confidence are hypercorrected.

The relation between people's confidence in the accuracy of an erroneous response and their later performance was investigated and it was found that highly confident errors were the most likely to be corrected in a subsequent retest.

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Older adults, despite higher overall accuracy on the general-information questions and excellent basic metacognitive ability, showed a diminished hypercorrection effect, showing, for the first time, that a particular participant population is selectively impaired on this error correction task.

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This experiment, which is the first to use imaging to investigate the hypercorrection effect, provided support for this hypothesis, showing that both metacognitive mismatch conditions—that in which high confidence accompanies a wrong answer and that in which lowconfidence accompanies a correct answer—revealed anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus activations.

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Overall, participants better remembered both the surface features and the content of surprising feedback in the hypercorrection effect, which results from increased attention to surprising feedback.
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