Besides its role in regulating serum levels of calcium and phosphorus, 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) has potent effects on the immune system and suppresses disease in several animal models of autoimmune disorders including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. While the amount of 1,25-(OH)2D3 needed to prevent EAE is dependent on the gender of the mouse and amount of calcium available in the diet, the minimum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3 sufficient to prevent disease cause hypercalcemia. To test if hypercalcemia independent of high levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3 can suppress EAE, we used a 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase) knockout mouse strain. Because these 1alpha-hydroxylase knockout mice lack the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-regulated enzyme that synthesizes 1,25-(OH)2D3, hypercalcemia from increased bone turnover was created by continuous administration of PTH without changing the circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3. This PTH-mediated hypercalcemia generated after EAE induction prevented disease in female mice but not male mice. When hypercalcemia was prevented by diet manipulation, PTH administration no longer prevented EAE. We conclude that hypercalcemia is able to prevent EAE after disease induction in female mice.