Hyperactive antifreeze protein from beetles

  title={Hyperactive antifreeze protein from beetles},
  author={Laurie A. Graham and Yih-Cherng Liou and Virginia K. Walker and Peter L. Davies},
We have purified a thermal hysteresis (antifreeze) protein, with up to 100 times the specific activity of fish antifreeze proteins, from the common yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. It is a threonine- and cysteine-rich protein, of relative molecular mass 8,400, composed largely of 12-amino-acid repeats. We estimate that a concentration of roughly 1 mg ml−1 of this protein can account for the 5.5 °C of thermal hysteresis found in Tenebrio larvae (Fig. 1). 
Phytochemistry: Heat-stable antifreeze protein from grass
An antifreeze protein is discovered in an overwintering perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, which enables grasses to tolerate ice formation in their tissues without being damaged, suggesting that the control of ice-crystal growth rather than the prevention of freezing may have evolved to be the critical factor in their survival at very low temperatures.
Hyperactive Antifreeze Protein from Winter Flounder Is a Very Long Rod-like Dimer of α-Helices*
A hyperactive antifreeze protein is isolated from the plasma of the flounder with activity 10–100-fold higher than type I AFP, comparable in activity to the AFPs produced by insects, and is capable of conferring freeze resistance to theflounder.
The antifreeze potential of the spruce budworm thermal hysteresis protein
Based on the isolation, cloning, and expression of a thermal hysteresis protein (THP) from spruce budworm, the vastly greater activity is attributable to a 9 kDa protein, offering the prospect of superior antifreeze properties in cryoprotective applications.
Evolution of Hyperactive, Repetitive Antifreeze Proteins in Beetles
The cDNA and genomic sequences of additional T. molitor isoforms are obtained and it is proposed that the higher than expected ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions might result from selection for higher AT content in the third codon position.
Role of Antifreezing Proteins in Fishes
AFPs and AFGPs have been incorporated into the freeze-resistance or freeze-tolerance strategies of many organisms such as marine fishes, insects, plants and bacteria.
Enhancement of insect antifreeze protein activity by solutes of low molecular mass.
Several low-molecular-mass solutes that enhance the thermal hysteresis activity of an AFP from overwintering larvae of the beetle Dendroides canadensis are described.
Main properties and evolutionary features of antifreeze proteins
This review summarizes data on the origin of antifreeze proteins, their taxonomic distribution, and their activities and functioning mechanisms, with emphasis on cereals, including wheat.