Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning

@article{Thompson2012HydroxocobalaminIC,
  title={Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning},
  author={John P. Thompson and T. Marrs},
  journal={Clinical Toxicology},
  year={2012},
  volume={50},
  pages={875 - 885}
}
Introduction. On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. Methods. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics… Expand
Intravenous cobinamide versus hydroxocobalamin for acute treatment of severe cyanide poisoning in a swine (Sus scrofa) model.
TLDR
Both hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide rescued severely cyanide-poisoned swine from apnea in the absence of assisted ventilation, and no statistically significant differences were detected between the 2 groups for mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, respiratory rate, lactate, or pH. Expand
Pharmacokinetics of Next Generation Cyanide Antidote Sulfanegen in Rabbits
Aim: Sulfanegen has been shown to be an effective next generation cyanide antidote in multiple animal studies. Sulfanegen detoxifies cyanide by acting as a sulfur donor, converting cyanide toExpand
Effectiveness of isosorbide dinitrate in cyanide poisoning as a function of the administration timing
TLDR
Poisoned rabbits showed improved short-term survival following the administration of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) up to 7 min after lethal cyanide poisoning of, and are seen a potential for ISDN as an antidote against cyanides poisoning. Expand
Modest and variable efficacy of pre-exposure hydroxocobalamin and dicobalt edetate in a porcine model of acute cyanide salt poisoning
TLDR
In this porcine study of cyanide exposure, with pre-exposure antidote administration, licenced doses of dicobalt edetate and hydroxocobalamin were effective at just lethal doses but ineffective at less than twice the estimated LD50. Expand
Early administration of isosorbide dinitrate improves survival of cyanide-poisoned rabbits
  • O. Lavon
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Clinical toxicology
  • 2015
TLDR
Early administration of isosorbide dinitrate improved the short-term survival of cyanide-poisoned rabbits and shows potential as an antidote for cyanide poisoning. Expand
Characterization of a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.
TLDR
A large animal (swine) model of oral cyanide poisoning with dose-dependent effects in regard to time to death and survival rate is reported, likely will be valuable for the development of medical countermeasures for oral cyanides poisoning. Expand
Past, present and future of cyanide antagonism research: From the early remedies to the current therapies.
This paper reviews milestones in antidotal therapies for cyanide (CN) spanning early remedies, current antidotal systems and research towards next generation therapies. CN has been a part of plantExpand
Coenzyme Q10 Ameliorates potassium cyanide-induced toxicosis in a mouse model
TLDR
CoQ10 significantly reinforced the neurological integrity and restored cellular glutathione (reduced form) in both the liver and brain, a clear indication of reduced oxidative stress in the face of KCN-induced toxicosis. Expand
Hydroxocobalamin interference in routine laboratory tests: Development of a protocol for identifying samples and reporting results from patients treated with cyanokitTM.
TLDR
OHCob had significant effects on several tests across different instruments, which led to the development of special sample handling and reporting protocols to identify OHCob samples and ensure only accurate results are released. Expand
Carbon Monoxide and Other Tissue Poisons
Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) is a recognized treatment for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and has a supplemental role in the treatment of some other tissue poisons. Basic mechanisms, diagnosis, andExpand
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TLDR
Severe cyanide poisoning of the nature observed in most patients in this study is frequently fatal, so the fact that 71% of patients survived after treatment with hydroxocobalamin suggests that hydroxoobalamin as first-line antidotal therapy is effective and safe in acute cyanides poisoning. Expand
Cobinamide is superior to other treatments in a mouse model of cyanide poisoning
TLDR
These studies demonstrate that Cbi is a highly effective cyanide antidote in mouse models, and suggest it could be used in a mass casualty setting, because it can be given rapidly as an intramuscular injection when administered as Cbi-SO3. Expand
Pharmacokinetics of hydroxocobalamin in dogs.
TLDR
The pharmacokinetics of an i.v. bolus of hydroxocobalamin were compatible with a two-compartment model with a first-order distribution and elimination rate, and pharmacokinetic parameters were not different between the two doses, except for the elimination half-life. Expand
Pharmacokinetics of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation victims.
TLDR
Hydroxocobalamin's elimination half-life in these cyanide-exposed patients far exceeds those found in previous studies of dogs and minimally-exp exposed humans, suggesting a predominantly extracellular partitioning of the antidote, even in the presence of cyanide, an important factor in terms of its antidotal effect. Expand
Comparison of cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide physiologic effects in rabbits using diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring.
TLDR
It is indicated that cobinamide more rapidly and completely reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide than equimolar doses of cobalamin at the dose used in this study, and CN effects and response can be followed noninvasively using DOS. Expand
Hydroxocobalamin treatment of acute cyanide poisoning from apricot kernels
TLDR
A 35-year-old mentally ill woman who consumed more than 20 apricot kernels was completely asymptomatic with normalised blood pressure and other haemodynamic parameters, which reinforces the safety and effectiveness of hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion. Expand
Prospective study of hydroxocobalamin for acute cyanide poisoning in smoke inhalation.
TLDR
Hydroxocobalamin appears to be safe for the out-of-hospital treatment of presumptive cyanide poisoning from smoke inhalation and was associated with survival among 67% of patients confirmed a posteriori to have had Cyanide poisoning. Expand
Hydroxocobalamin as a cyanide antidote: safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics in heavily smoking normal volunteers.
TLDR
Hydroxocobalamin is safe when administered in a 5 gram intravenous dose, and effectively decreases the low whole blood cyanide levels found in heavy smokers. Expand
Use of vitamin B12 in the treatment and prevention of nitroprusside‐induced cyanide toxicity
TLDR
Hydroxocobalamin is a safe and effective agent in the prevention and treatment of nitroprusside-induced cyanide toxicity and should be minimized in critically ill patients, especially if hepatic and/or renal dysfunction is present. Expand
Effect of the cyanide antidote hydroxocobalamin on commonly ordered serum chemistry studies.
TLDR
The presence of OHCob in serum interferes with several chemistry methodologies, and such interference should be anticipated when this antidote is used. Expand
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