Hydrolytic enzymes as virulence factors of Candida albicans

  title={Hydrolytic enzymes as virulence factors of Candida albicans},
  author={Martin Schaller and Claudia Borelli and Hans Christian Korting and Bernhard Hube},
Candida albicans is a facultative pathogenic micro‐organism that has developed several virulence traits enabling invasion of host tissues and avoidance of host defence mechanisms. Virulence factors that contribute to this process are the hydrolytic enzymes. Most of them are extracellularly secreted by the fungus. The most discussed hydrolytic enzymes produced by C. albicans are secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps). The role of these Saps for C. albicans infections was carefully evaluated in… 
Candida lipases: a review on biochemical, molecular and pathogenic aspects.
An updated description of biochemical and molecular characteristics of the lipases secreted by Candida, its role as a virulence factor and its potential for the development of new antifungal drugs is provided.
Roles of Candida albicans aspartic proteases in host-pathogen interactions
Confirmed multiple roles of candidal aspartic proteases in the host-pathogen interactions during candidiasis qualify these enzymes as promising potential targets for novel antifungal therapies.
Extracellular proteinases of Candida species pathogenic yeasts.
The increased incidence of severe disseminated infections caused by the opportunistic yeast-like fungi Candida spp. highlights the urgent need for research into the major virulence factors of these
Comprehensive characterization of secreted aspartic proteases encoded by a virulence gene family in Candida albicans.
Principal component analysis revealed that the 10 Sap isozymes were clustered into 3 distinct groups in terms of their substrate specificities, indicating that they may target similar host proteins and further understanding of C. albicans pathogenicity.
Secreted proteins of Candida albicans.
The predicted secretome of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans contains more than 200 ORFs of diverse and often unknown function which may enable invasion of host tissues, help the pathogen to avoid host defense mechanisms, or allow the microorganism to utilize host cell macromolecules as a source of nutrients.
Clinical and pathogenicity aspects of Candida species
Candida species normally exist as commensals of the skin and mucosa, but they are also opportunistic pathogens, with the ability to cause a variety of superficial and invasive diseases. Among the
Candida albicans and virulence factors that increases its pathogenicity
The aim of this chapter is a comprehensive analysis of virulence factors that increases the pathogenicity of C. albicans.
In vitro evaluation of virulence factors of Candida species isolated from oral cavity
In vitro phospholipase, proteinase, haemolysin, esterase activities and biofilm formation in oral Candida isolates were determined and Candida albicans showed more extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity, whereas, Candida tropicalis showed moreBiofilm formation.
The action of ten secreted aspartic proteases of pathogenic yeast Candida albicans on major human salivary antimicrobial peptide, histatin 5.
The results, presented hereby, provide extended characteristics of the action of C. albicans extracellular proteases on His5 and contribute to deepening the knowledge on the interactions between fungal pathogens and the human host.
Secreted Candida Proteins: Pathogenicity and Host Immunity
Although the functions of the majority of recently identified proteins are currently unknown, it is only a matter of time before a considerable number of new secreted proteins are added to the arsenal of Candida species, which will significantly advance the understanding of why these fungi are such a successful human pathogens.


Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases.
  • B. Hube
  • Biology
    Current topics in medical mycology
  • 1996
Insights into the genetic organization and regulation of the secreted proteinases suggest not only that these enzymes may act as virulence factors of C. albicans, but that the pathogenesis of this fungus is indeed complex and multifactorial.
Primary substrate specificities of secreted aspartic proteases of Candida albicans.
It is suggested that Candida albicans may require stage-specific proteases for its life cycle, and one of these enzymes, SAP6 was found to be expressed exclusively in the virulent form of these cells, implying a direct invasive function.
Candida albicans proteinases: resolving the mystery of a gene family.
More recent data regarding the contribution of the secreted proteinases to C. albicans virulence are summarized and the Sap isoenzymes appear to have a variety of functions in vivo, which are probably called upon at different stages and in different types of C.Albicans infection.
Stimuli that induce production of Candida albicans extracellular aspartyl proteinase.
Data reveal that internalization of small peptides by peptide transport was not the inducing signal for proteinase production, since Candida dipeptide and oligopeptide permeases do not efficiently transport peptides of more than 6-7 residues.
Expression of seven members of the gene family encoding secretory aspartyl proteinases in Candida albicans
The in vitro expression of seven known members of the SAP gene family in a range of strains and serotypes is studied by Northern analysis to suggest that the various members of this family may have distinct roles in the colonization and invasion of the host.
Secreted aspartic proteinase (Sap) activity contributes to tissue damage in a model of human oral candidosis
The results suggest that Sap1‐3, but not Sap4‐6, contribute to tissue damage in this model of oral candidosis, and that C. albicans may compensate for the deletion of certain SAP genes by upregulation of alternative SAP genes.
Phospholipase production in morphological variants of Candida, albicans
Using egg yolk agar plates, it was shown that all variants of high‐frequency, colonial morphology switching systems in C. albicans produced extracellular phospholipase (s), a generally accepted mechanism of path‐ogenesis in many microorganisms.
Three distinct secreted aspartyl proteinases in Candida albicans
From a single strain of C. albicans (WO-1) which expresses a phenotypic switching system, three secreted aspartyl proteinases have been identified as determined by molecular weight and N-terminal sequence.
Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases: isoenzyme pattern is determined by cell type, and levels are determined by environmental factors
These studies define the culture conditions which control the levels of SAP mRNAs and Sap proteins, and they indicate that both the yeast/hyphal transition and phenotypic switching can determine which of the Sap isoenzymes is produced.
Candida albicans Hyphal Formation and the Expression of the Efg1-Regulated Proteinases Sap4 to Sap6 Are Required for the Invasion of Parenchymal Organs
It can be concluded that the reduced virulence of hypha-deficient mutants is not only due to the inability to form hyphae but also due to modified expression of the SAP genes normally associated with the hyphal morphology, particularly that encoded by SAP6.