Hydrogen peroxide: a metabolic by-product or a common mediator of ageing signals?

@article{Giorgio2007HydrogenPA,
  title={Hydrogen peroxide: a metabolic by-product or a common mediator of ageing signals?},
  author={Marco Giorgio and Mirella Trinei and Enrica Migliaccio and Pier Giuseppe Pelicci},
  journal={Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology},
  year={2007},
  volume={8},
  pages={722-728}
}
The reactive oxygen species that are generated by mitochondrial respiration, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are potent inducers of oxidative damage and mediators of ageing. It is not clear, however, whether oxidative stress is the result of a genetic programme or the by-product of physiological processes. Recent findings demonstrate that a fraction of mitochondrial H2O2, produced by a specialized enzyme as a signalling molecule in the pathway of apoptosis, induces intracellular oxidative… Expand
Electrochemical study of hydrogen peroxide formation in isolated mitochondria.
TLDR
A novel electrochemical assay is implemented for the investigation of aerobic metabolism in preparations of isolated mitochondria through simultaneous measurement of O₂ consumption and reactive species production, and shows that ATP synthase activation and moderate depolarization increase the rate of H₣O₁ formation, suggesting that ATP synthesizing (state 3) mitochondria might contribute to oxidative stress or signaling. Expand
Mitochondrial generation of free radicals and hypoxic signaling
TLDR
Although excess ROS and RNS can lead to oxidative and nitrosative stress, moderate to low levels of both function in cellular signaling pathways, which have important implications for cancer, inflammation and a variety of other diseases. Expand
Evaluating the Oxidative Stress in Renal Diseases: What Is the Role for S-Glutathionylation?
TLDR
This work has shown that S-glutathionylation is a posttranslational modification involved in oxidative cellular response in patients with renal dysfunctions due to a general increase of ROS paralleled by impaired antioxidant ability. Expand
The Role of Mitochondria in Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism and Signaling
  • A. Starkov
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2008
TLDR
The in vitro ROS‐producing capacity of several mitochondrial sites is compared in the metabolic context and the role of mitochondria in ROS‐dependent intracellular signaling is discussed. Expand
A hydrogen peroxide detoxification system in the nucleus of wheat seed cells
TLDR
It is discussed here the possibility that the control of the level of hydrogen peroxide in the nucleus may be important to balance redox regulation of gene expression and cell death in cereal seed cells. Expand
Studies of the thioredoxin system in redox signaling and oxidative stress
Reactive oxygen species exert reversible posttranslational modifications in proteins containing redox sensitive thiols, thereby affecting several cellular processes and protein functions. ReductiveExpand
Oxidative stress in cyanobacteria.
TLDR
This review summarizes recent findings and outlines important perspectives in this field of reactive oxygen species, which are byproducts of aerobic metabolism and potent agents that cause oxidative damage in cyanobacteria. Expand
The peroxide dilemma: opposing and mediating insulin action.
TLDR
It is becoming evident that ROS are also causal to diabetes, a metabolic disorder characterized by insufficiency of secretion of, or receptor insensitivity to, endogenous insulin, and this notion underlines a dual role for ROS in insulin signaling as both deleterious and beneficiary. Expand
The p53-p66shc-Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD) network: a mitochondrial intrigue to generate reactive oxygen species.
TLDR
The present short review summarizes recent discoveries on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulation by p53, a tumor suppressor protein and p66shc and outlines the emerging network whereby these molecules cross-talk with each other and with the mitochondrial antioxidant system, namely MnSOD (SOD2), another life-span determining protein, to regulate oxidative stress in the organelle. Expand
Are Mitochondria a Source , a Sink , or a Target of ROS ?
Oxidative stress is considered a major contributor to the etiology of both “normal” senescence and severe pathologies with serious public health implications. Several cellular sources, includingExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 81 REFERENCES
Electron Transfer between Cytochrome c and p66Shc Generates Reactive Oxygen Species that Trigger Mitochondrial Apoptosis
TLDR
P66Shc is a redox enzyme that generates mitochondrial ROS (hydrogen peroxide) as signaling molecules for apoptosis and the existence of alternative redox reactions of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain is demonstrated, which evolved to generate proapoptotic ROS in response to specific stress signals. Expand
Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease.
TLDR
Attention is focussed on the ROS/RNS-linked pathogenesis of cancer, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and ageing. Expand
Energy metabolism and oxidative stress
TLDR
The oxidative stress hypothesis states that free radicals produced during cellular respiration damage lipids, proteins, and DNA thereby accelerating the aging process and increasing disease risk, and other factors, such as mitochondrial function, may be important in the production of free radicals and the subsequent effect on aging and disease states. Expand
Hydrogen peroxide: a signaling messenger.
TLDR
This review evaluates the evidence that H2O2 functions as a signaling agent in higher organisms in light of the known biology and biochemistry of H2 O2 and identifies oxidation-dependent steps in signal transduction pathways being uncovered. Expand
Oxidative stress as a causal factor in differentiation and aging: a unifying hypothesis
TLDR
The authors suggest that the damage accumulated during aging is a secondary effect rather than a direct cause of senescence, and show that cells exert control not only on their level of antioxidant defense but also on their rate of oxidant production. Expand
Redox‐dependent signal transduction
TLDR
The effects of ROS on signal transduction pathways, the molecules that regulate intracellular ROS production and the potential protein targets of oxidants are focused on. Expand
Enhanced catabolism of mitochondrial superoxide/hydrogen peroxide and aging in transgenic Drosophila.
TLDR
The notion that mitochondrial O2*-/H2O2 production at physiological levels is essential for normal biological processes leading to the attainment of a normal lifespan is supported. Expand
Reactive oxygen species as mediators of cell adhesion.
  • P. Chiarugi
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • The Italian journal of biochemistry
  • 2003
TLDR
In seeking for potential molecular mechanisms for oxidative signaling by integrins, it is found that transient oxidation/inactivation of LMW-PTP, a known negative regulator of RTK signaling, occurred during fibroblast adhesion to matrix, with a kinetic which paralleled the generation of ROS. Expand
Therapeutics against Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Animal Models of Aging
  • S. Melov
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2002
TLDR
A genetic and pharmacological approach is taken in delineating the range of molecular targets that can be oxidatively damaged by mitochondrial ROS and employing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to test the hypothesis that effective antioxidant therapy can prolong the life span of an invertebrate. Expand
Redox signaling in cancer biology.
TLDR
This Forum is directed at understanding possible redox signaling mechanisms governing cellular radiation response, tumor growth, and response to therapy, as well as the role of nitric oxide in cancer biology. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...