Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses

  title={Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses},
  author={Jillian M. Petersen and Frank U. Zielinski and Thomas Pape and Richard P. Seifert and Cristina Moraru and Rudolf I. Amann and St{\'e}phane Hourdez and Peter R. Girguis and Scott D. Wankel and Val{\'e}rie Barbe and {\'E}ric Pelletier and Dennis Fink and Christian Borowski and Wolfgang Bach and Nicole Dubilier},
The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity on Earth. Hydrothermal vent ecosystems are dominated by animals that live in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria. So far, only two energy sources have been shown to power chemosynthetic symbioses: reduced sulphur compounds and methane. Using metagenome sequencing, single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, shipboard incubations… 

Evidence for hydrogen oxidation and metabolic plasticity in widespread deep-sea sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

Deep-sea populations of the SUP05 group of uncultured sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria, which are abundant in widespread and diverse marine environments, contain and highly express genes encoding group 1 Ni, Fe hydrogenase enzymes for H2 oxidation, revealing the potential importance of H2 as a key energy source in the deep ocean.

Diversity and metabolism of prokaryotic chemoautotrophs and their interactions with deep-sea hydrothermal environments

  • Z. Shao
  • Environmental Science
    Chinese Science Bulletin
  • 2018
The deep sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem was first discovered in 1977 at East Pacific Rise (EPR) near the Galapagos Islands. In the past decades, over 640 hydrothermal vent sites have been found in

Microorganisms from deep-sea hydrothermal vents

The taxonomic and physiological diversity of microbial prokaryotic life from cosmopolitan to endemic taxa are reviewed and emphasized and their significant roles in the biogeochemical processes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents are emphasized.

Origins and Evolutionary Flexibility of Chemosynthetic Symbionts From Deep-Sea Animals

The phylogenetic analyses of the bathymodiolin symbionts show that both the sulfur and the methane oxidizers fall into multiple clades interspersed with free-living bacteria, many of which were discovered recently in metagenomes from marine oxygen minimum zones.

The microbiomes of deep-sea hydrothermal vents: distributed globally, shaped locally

  • G. Dick
  • Environmental Science
    Nature Reviews Microbiology
  • 2019
The challenges and opportunities that vent ecosystems provide for microbial life and their relationship to biogeography are explored, including their relationships with underlying geology and hydrothermal geochemistry.

Hydrothermal activity, functional diversity and chemoautotrophy are major drivers of seafloor carbon cycling

A quantitative ecosystem model of a deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystem from the most southerly hydrothermal vent system known is developed and evidence of chemosynthesis production supplementing the metazoan food web both at vent sites and elsewhere in the Bransfield Strait is found.

Metagenomic Signatures of Microbial Communities in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sediments of Azores Vent Fields

The metabolic profiles of chemolithoautotrophs inhabiting the sediments of Menez Gwen and Rainbow deep-sea vent fields, in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, are investigated, revealing the largely autotrophic communities thriving in both sites.

Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts

A novel, in situ RNA sampling and preservation device is presented, which is used to compare the symbiont metatranscriptomes associated with Alviniconcha, a genus of vent snail, in which specific host–symbiont combinations are predictably distributed across a regional geochemical gradient.

Metagenomic resolution of microbial functions in deep-sea hydrothermal plumes across the Eastern Lau Spreading Center

The energy metabolism of microbial communities inhabiting rising hydrothermal plumes is dictated by the underlying plume chemistry, with a dominant role for sulfur-based chemolithoautotrophy.

The Transcriptome of Bathymodiolus azoricus Gill Reveals Expression of Genes from Endosymbionts and Free-Living Deep-Sea Bacteria

Transcriptome sequencing and analysis of gill tissues from B. azoricus revealed a number of genes of bacterial origin, hereby analyzed to provide a functional insight into the gill microbial community, which supported a metabolically active microbiome and a variety of mechanisms and pathways.



Methanotrophic symbioses in marine invertebrates.

This review presents an overview of the habitats and invertebrate hosts in which symbiotic methane oxidizers have been found, and the methods used to investigate these symbioses, focusing on the symbioes of bathymodiolin mussels that have received the most attention among methanotrophic associations.

Pathways of Carbon and Energy Metabolism of the Epibiotic Community Associated with the Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata

The data suggest that autotrophic carbon fixation is contributing to the productivity of the epibiotic community with the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle as one important carbon fixation pathway.

The gill symbiont of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus is a psychrophilic, chemoautotrophic, sulfur bacterium

The current study confirms that the B. thermophilus symbiont is a psychrophile for which thiosulfate and sulfide stimulate CO2 fixation and strongly indicates that the symbionT is a chemoautotroph by establishing the following.

Symbiosis of methylotrophic bacteria and deep-sea mussels

Recently, dense assemblages of seep mussels and other benthic invertebrates resembling hydrothermal vent communities were found associated with reducing sediments at hypersaline seeps in the abyssal

Expression patterns of mRNAs for methanotrophy and thiotrophy in symbionts of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis

It is proposed that the symbionts respond to the steep temporal and spatial gradients in methane, reduced sulfur compounds and oxygen by modifying gene transcription, whereas changes in symbiont abundance and distribution take much longer than regulation of mRNA expression and may only occur in response to long-term changes in vent fluid geochemistry.

CH4, H2, CO and N2O in submarine hydrothermal vent waters

Hydrothermal circulation systems of mid-ocean ridges profoundly influence the chemistry of the oceans and the oceanic crust1–3. This has been demonstrated for several major and minor constituents of

Dual symbiosis of the vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata with filamentous gamma- and epsilonproteobacteria at four Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent fields.

It is hypothesized that biogeography and host-symbiont selectivity play a role in structuring the epibiosis of R. exoculata, indicating that the symbiosis is highly stable and specific.

A Methanotrophic Marine Molluscan (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) Symbiosis: Mussels Fueled by Gas

An undescribed mussel (family Mytilidae), which lives in the vicinity of hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico, consumes methane (the principal component of natural gas) at a high rate, demonstrating a methane-based symbiosis between an animal and intracellular bacteria.

Geochemical constraints on the diversity and activity of H2 -oxidizing microorganisms in diffuse hydrothermal fluids from a basalt- and an ultramafic-hosted vent.

The influence of fluid chemistry on microbial diversity and activity by sampling diffuse fluids emanating through mussel beds at two contrasting hydrothermal vents is examined, and it is concluded that the factors contributing toward differences in the Diversity and activity of H(2) oxidizers at these sites include H( 2) and O(2), availability.

Molecular biology of hydrogen utilization in aerobic chemolithotrophs.

Maturation of both types of hydrogenase is apparently complex, involving specific nickel incorporation and proteolytic processing steps, and in Alcaligenes eutrophus and Rhodobacter capsulatus, hydrogenase expression is regulated by transcriptional activators belonging to the response-regulator family.