Hydrogen as a novel hypothesized emerging treatment for oxidative stress in autism.

  • A Ghanizadeh
  • Published 2012 in
    European review for medical and pharmacological…

Abstract

Dear Editor, Hydrogen H(2) is a " novel antioxidant " can be potentially used for many medical conditions 1. Both human and animal studies indicated the protective effects of hydrogen inhalation 2,3. H(2) decreases the hydroxyl radical while it does not react with other types of reac-tive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) and nitric oxide (NO) 3. This is very important because H 2 O 2 and NO have some roles as second messengers during cell growth and differentiation 4. Although H(2) can be explosive and inflammable, however, it will not flame in temperatures less than 527°C. It does not react with oxygen at room temperature 1. It has been used in humans for diving 5. A few advantages are reported for H(2) as an antioxidant 1 : (1) It passes through bio-membranes and can enter the cytosol, while some other antioxidants do not; (2) H(2) is able to pass the blood brain barrier; and (3) Molecular hydrogen lacks any cytotoxicity effects, even at high concentration. Molecular hydrogen can be easily consumed through inhalation, drinking hydrogen water, injection, eye-dropping of hydrogen saline, and taking a hydrogen bath 1. The continuous consumption of hydrogen water decreases oxidative stress in the mouse brain and prevents the stress-induced decline in learning and memory 6. Moreover, molecular hydrogen in drinking water has preventive and therapeutic effects on the animal models of Parkinson disease 7,8. Hydrogen, through effect on IL-6 and TNF-alpha, plays a therapeutic role in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury 9. The inhalation of hydrogen gas decreases oxida-tive stress resulting in a reduction in hepatic injury due to ischemia/reperfusion 10. Moreover, hydrogen water prevents atherosclerosis in animals 11. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) consisted of several disorders including Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The clinical manifestations of ASD are impaired language and verbal communication, limited or impaired social relationships, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. These disorders usually start in early childhood. Autism a neuro-developmental disorder involves multiple organs. ASDs are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction 12-14. There should be an equilibrium between oxidative stress and antioxidant defense capacity 15. Oxidative stress plays a causative role for autism 16,17. While oxidative stress is increased in autism, methylation capacity is impaired 18. The deficit in antioxidant and methylation capacity in autism is a specific finding for autism 19. Glutathione (GSH) is responsible for the reduction of …

Cite this paper

@article{Ghanizadeh2012HydrogenAA, title={Hydrogen as a novel hypothesized emerging treatment for oxidative stress in autism.}, author={A Ghanizadeh}, journal={European review for medical and pharmacological sciences}, year={2012}, volume={16 9}, pages={1313-4} }