Hydrodynamics of swimming in stingrays: numerical simulations and the role of the leading-edge vortex

@article{BottomII2016HydrodynamicsOS,
  title={Hydrodynamics of swimming in stingrays: numerical simulations and the role of the leading-edge vortex},
  author={R. G. Bottom II and Iman Borazjani and Erin L. Blevins and George V. Lauder},
  journal={Journal of Fluid Mechanics},
  year={2016},
  volume={788},
  pages={407 - 443}
}
Stingrays, in contrast with many other aquatic animals, have flattened disk-shaped bodies with expanded pectoral ‘wings’, which are used for locomotion in water. To discover the key features of stingray locomotion, large-eddy simulations of a self-propelled stingray, modelled closely after the freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon orbignyi, are performed. The stingray’s body motion was prescribed based on three-dimensional experimental measurement of wing and body kinematics in live stingrays at… 

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