Hydrocephalus in children

@article{Kahle2016HydrocephalusIC,
  title={Hydrocephalus in children},
  author={Kristopher T. Kahle and Abhaya V. Kulkarni and David D. Limbrick and Benjamin C. Warf},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={2016},
  volume={387},
  pages={788-799}
}
New concept of the pathogenesis and therapeutic orientation of acquired communicating hydrocephalus
  • Hao Xu
  • Medicine
    Neurological Sciences
  • 2016
TLDR
The future research direction should be the prevention of hydrocephalus, which should take a long period from the immediate occurrence of brain injury to several months or even years after the injury.
Cerebrospinal fluid hypersecretion in pediatric hydrocephalus.
TLDR
Although the choroid plexus epithelium might have only an indirect influence on the pathogenesis of many types of pediatric hydrocephalus, the ability to modify CSF secretion with drugs newer than acetazolamide or furosemide would be an invaluable component of future therapies to alleviate permanent shunt dependence.
Molecular Mechanisms and Risk Factors for the Pathogenesis of Hydrocephalus
TLDR
Some possible fundamental molecular mechanisms and facilitating risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus are elicited, and knowledge could be used to improve patient care in different ways, such as early precise diagnosis and effective therapeutic regimens.
Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of infantile congenital hydrocephalus
TLDR
CSF proteins such as sAPPα and related proteins hold promise as biomarkers ofCHC in infants and young children, and provide insight into the pathophysiology of CHC during this critical period in neurodevelopment.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Hydrocephalus
TLDR
There are several forms of hydrocephalus predefined by their respective antecedent neurologic events, including: posthemorrhagic hydrocephalUS (PHH), which occurs following severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in neonates; postinfectious hydrocephalu (PIH),which results from ventriculitis typically in the setting of perinatal sepsis.
Hydrocephalus and CSF Disorders
TLDR
In this chapter, the radiological work-up and imaging features required for an accurate diagnosis of the different types of hydrocephalus and other CSF disorders will be reviewed, with the main purpose of improving clinical practice.
Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus: Recent advances and new therapeutic insights
Genomics of human congenital hydrocephalus
TLDR
WES is suggested as a clinical tool with potential to re-classify CH according to a molecular nomenclature of increased precision and utility for genetic counseling, outcome prognostication, and treatment stratification.
Neurodevelopmental outcomes after ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in children with non-infectious hydrocephalus: a meta-analysis
TLDR
Results from the meta-analysis showed that the risks of cerebral palsy, visual and hearing impairment, epilepsy, or seizures are significantly higher in children with non-infectious hydrocephalus who already had VP shunt placement (shunted non- Infectious Hydrocephalus, S-NIH) compared to that of the healthy control.
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References

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This review summarizes the recent findings on this issue among human and animal models, especially with reference to the molecular genetics, pathological, physiological and cellular studies, and identifies future research directions.
Short-term medical management of hydrocephalus
TLDR
Fibrinolytic therapy administered directly into the ventricular system may not avoid the need for shunt placement, but may help in the management of hydrocephalus by preventing or reducing the rate of catheter obstruction and accelerating clot resolution.
Diffuse choroid plexus hyperplasia: an under-diagnosed cause of hydrocephalus in children?
TLDR
An 11-year-old boy is reported with diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus with a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in-situ and a prior diagnosis from infancy of congenital aqueduct stenosis as the cause of his hydrocephalus.
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TLDR
The hemodynamically significant elevation in vascular resistance, which occurs in neonatal hydrocephalus, appears to be located in the venous sinuses.
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TLDR
Although the term external hydrocephalus describes a roentgenographic presentation, the term benign enlargement of subarachnoid space is preferred in infants similar to the authors' group by better describing the benign nature of the phenomenon in appropriately selected infants.
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TLDR
Patients presenting with clinical normal pressure hydrocephalus who have hyperdynamic CSF flow have been found to respond better to ventriculoperitoneal shunting than those with normal or decreasedCSF flow.
Hyperemic hydrocephalus: a new form of childhood hydrocephalus analogous to hyperemic intracranial hypertension in adults.
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  • Medicine
    Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • 2010
TLDR
Children with hyperemic hydrocephalus show a significant elevation in collateral venous flow, indicating that the same venous pathophysiology may be operating in both conditions.
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