Hybrid input-output approach to metal production and its application to the introduction of lead-free solders.

Abstract

The production process of metals such as copper, lead, and zinc is characterized by mutual interconnections and interdependence, as well as by the occurrence of a large number of byproducts, which include precious or rare metals, such as gold, silver, bismuth, and indium. On the basis of the framework of waste input-output (WIO), we present a hybrid 10… (More)

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