Hyaline membrane disease (HMD): the role of the perinatal pathologist

  title={Hyaline membrane disease (HMD): the role of the perinatal pathologist},
  author={Giorgia Locci and Vassilios Fanos and Clara Gerosa and Gavino Faa},
  journal={Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine},
  • G. Locci, V. Fanos, G. Faa
  • Published 21 October 2014
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine
Hyaline membrane disease (HMD), the pathologic correlate of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn, is an acute lung disease of premature infant caused by inadequate amounts of surfactant. [] Key Result The most important pathological findings for a complete clinical pathological diagnosis are: the evaluation of the architectural lung development; the endothelial cell lesions; the interstitial edema; the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation; the presence of associated inflammatory…

Figures from this paper

The authors reviewed the literature on clinical, morphological and biochemical aspects of YHMD from the first article in 1976 to the last systematic research in 1983 and hoped it would remain a condition that is not seen in the practice nowadays and would be discussed only as a phenomenon with historical significance.
Interindividual Variability in the Expression of Surfactant Protein A and B in the Human Lung During Development
The data clearly show a marked inter-individual variability regarding the production of SPA and pro-SPB and suggest the existence of other epigenetic factors, acting during gestation, that might influence surfactant production and, consequently, the survival potential of neonates at birth.
Each niche has an actor: multiple stem cell niches in the preterm kidney
A better knowledge of molecular biology of the blue strip stem/progenitor cells could be at the basis of a new “endogenous” regenerative medicine, finalized to maintain and protect the nephrogenic potential of preterm infants till the 36th week of post-conceptional age, allowing them to escape oligonephronia and chronic kidney disease later in life.
Genetic Polymorphisms of SP-A, SP-B, and SP-D and Risk of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Neonates
Significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of SP-A (+186A/G, +655C/T) and SP-B (1580C/ t) were exhibited in case and control groups, and these polymorphisms are strongly associated with the risk of RDS in preterm infants.
Updates on the Status of Vitamin D as a Risk Factor for Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Although vitamin D supplementation may offer benefits for respiratory distress syndrome, the optimal dosing strategies for specific types of risk factors in the lungs must be clarified to confirm the therapeutic efficacy.
Vitamin D Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammation in A549 Cells by Downregulating Inflammatory Cytokines
Vitamin D promoted A549 cell survival following LPS-induced inflammation by downregulating nuclear factor nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12.


Hyaline membranes in postmature infants
This study showed that hyaline membrane formation resulted in asphyxia and respiratory failure in the majority of the postmature infants who were already troubled with hypoxia and a combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis secondary to meconium aspiration, and eventually led to death.
Pathology of the lung in surfactant-treated neonates.
The severity of hyaline membrane disease, PIE, and epithelial necrosis was less severe in the surfactant-treated group than in the untreated group, and the degree of pulmonary hemorrhage or in the incidence of PVH-IVH, sepsis, or NEC was unchanged.
Pulmonary disease following respirator therapy of hyaline-membrane disease. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Intensive therapy may modify the acute syndrome so as to permit the development of a previously unrecorded abnormality of hyaline-membrane disease.
Respiratory epithelial cell necrosis is the earliest lesion of hyaline membrane disease of the newborn.
The results suggest that the initial lesion of hyaline membrane disease of the newborn is necrosis of respiratory epithelial cells, and that this process may begin before birth.
Pathophysiology of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
It is hoped that with a better understanding of the normal physiology in the newborn lung, and the effects of both disease and interventions on that physiology, the practising clinician will have a greater appreciation of management of preterm infants with, or at risk of, RDS.
Urinary metabolomics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD): preliminary data at birth suggest it is a congenital disease
  • V. Fanos, Maria Cristina Pintus, G. Corsello
  • Medicine
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
  • 2014
The preliminary results seem to be promising for the identification of predictor’s biomarkers characterizing the BPD condition, and may suggest that BPD is probably the result of an abnormal development and could be considered a congenital disease (genetics plus intrauterine epigenetics).
ABCA3 gene mutations in newborns with fatal surfactant deficiency.
Mutation of the ABCA3 gene causes fatal surfactant deficiency in newborns and is critical for the proper formation of lamellar bodies and surfactan function and may also be important for lung function in other pulmonary diseases.
The preterm lung and airway: past, present, and future.
Hyaline membrane disease and surfactant protein, SAP-35, in diabetes in pregnancy.
Progress in the management of diabetes in pregnancy, characterized by more rigorous metabolic control, has decreased the risk of hyaline membrane disease for the infant of the diabetic mother and is associated with normal levels of SAP-35 in amniotic fluid.