Humoral Links between Sleep and the Immune System

@article{Krueger2003HumoralLB,
  title={Humoral Links between Sleep and the Immune System},
  author={James Krueger and J A Majde},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={2003},
  volume={992}
}
Abstract: In the last twenty years we have realized that the immune system synthesizes a class of peptides, termed cytokines, that play a central role in alerting the brain to ongoing inflammation in peripheral tissues. Among the brain's responses to proinflammatory cytokines, or agents that induce these cytokines, are certain alterations in sleep profiles. Characteristically there is an increase in non‐rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), and NREMS intensity is often accompanied by a decrease in… 
[Sleep and immune system].
TLDR
Sleep emerges as an important regulator of the immune system since, during sleep, the necessary functions to maintain its balance are carried out, and decreased sleep has deleterious effects that alter the metabolism and produce an increase in the secretion of C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).
Cytokines and normal sleep
TLDR
There is increasing evidence of a role for cytokines in regulating spontaneous non-rapid eye movement sleep and there is a significant overlap between neurohormonal systems such as the somatotropic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes and cytokines, particularly with regard to their effects on sleep-wake regulation.
Sleep–Immune System Interaction: Advantages and Challenges of Human Sleep Loss Model
TLDR
Human sleep loss models have been of great help in mechanistic characterization of cytokines in sleep and neuroendocrine components in non-REM sleep, respectively and the paradigm has helped establish sleep's functional characterization because of practical simplicity and often non-ambiguous results.
Humoral sleep regulation; interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor.
The influence of cytokines on wakefulness regulation: clinical relevance, mechanisms and methodological problems.
TLDR
Clinical relevance of this issue arises from the frequency of accidents, injuries and impairment in social functioning due to sleepiness, the occurrence of fatigue syndromes associated with inflammatory diseases, cancer or obesity, the role of wakefulness regulation for the pathophysiology of affective and sleep disorders and sedation as a side effect of psychopharmacological therapy.
Effects of Macrophage Depletion on Sleep in Mice
TLDR
Cold-induced increase in wakefulness and decrease in NREMS, rapid-eye movement sleep and body temperature were significantly enhanced in macrophage-depleted mice indicating increased cold sensitivity, further evidence for the reciprocal interaction among the immune system, sleep and metabolism.
Role of interleukin‐6 in stress, sleep, and fatigue
TLDR
Evidence is summarized showing how IL‐6 elevations in the context of inflammatory disease affect the organism, with a focus on sleep‐related symptoms and fatigue; and conversely, how alterations in sleep duration and quality stimulate increased concentrations of IL‐ 6 in the circulation.
The Sleep-Immune Crosstalk in Health and Disease
TLDR
The induction of a hormonal constellation that supports immune functions is one likely mechanism underlying the immune-supporting effects of sleep, and sleep appears to promote inflammatory homeostasis through effects on several inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines.
Bidirectional Communication between the Brain and the Immune System: Implications for Physiological Sleep and Disorders with Disrupted Sleep
TLDR
Current understanding of neuroimmune interactions in normal sleep and sleep deprivation, and the influence of these interactions on selected disorders characterized by pathological sleep are reviewed.
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