Humming Along

@article{Arnold2012HummingA,
  title={Humming Along},
  author={Kyle Arnold},
  journal={Contemporary Psychoanalysis},
  year={2012},
  volume={48},
  pages={100 - 117}
}
  • Kyle Arnold
  • Published 1 January 2012
  • Psychology
  • Contemporary Psychoanalysis
Abstract Ferrara (1994) estimates that 19–35% of the utterances by psychotherapists in session are variations of mm-hmm. However, there has been little discussion of this phenomenon in the literature. According to linguistics theory, mmhmm constitutes a backchannel response to a speaker that affirms his or her right to continue to hold the floor. In psychotherapy, mm-hmm reaffirms the patient's right to an extended conversational turn and the therapist's role as listener. Because mm-hmm is… 

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Book Reviews and Reception

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