Human styrene exposure

  title={Human styrene exposure},
  author={Pierre O. Droz and Michel P Guillemin},
  journal={International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health},
  • P. DrozM. Guillemin
  • Published 1 November 1983
  • Medicine
  • International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
SummaryThe use of biological indicators to monitor workers' exposure to styrene requires a good understanding of the kinetics of the solvent in the organism. The absorption, distribution and elimination of styrene (STY), as well as the kinetics of formation and excretion of its metabolites (mandelic [MA] and phenylglyoxylic [PGA] acids) are simulated using a mathematical model. The results obtained compare well with experimental data for pulmonary (STY) and urinary (MA and PGA) excretion… 

Biological exposure index of styrene suggested by a physiologico-mathematical model

Important differences correlated to the definition of set-levels of TLV and Biological Exposure Index (BEI) have been found: particularly the TLVs lead to different solvent uptakes according to some biological parameters; the BEI can better explain the individual solvent uptake and body burden.

Biomonitoring of Occupational Exposure to Styrene

Abstract To assess the most suitable biological indicators of styrene exposure, a comparison was made between air concentrations of the solvent and biological data in a group of 20 workers using

Evaluation of low exposure to styrene

Volunteers exposed by inhalation to styrene within the concentration range of 20 to 200 mg/m3 were exposed as exposure test, and the excretion rate of this metabolite assured the best correlation with the absorbed dose.

Application of a single-compartment model for estimation of styrene uptake from measurements of urinary excretion of mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids after occupational exposure

A single-compartment mathematical model was developed by which measured occupational repetitive uptake of styrene during a working day was related to measured excretion rates of the urinary metabolites, resulting in the unknown uptake (dose) from MA and PGA excretion analyzed in urine samples.

Biological monitoring of exposure to low concentrations of styrene.

Good correlation between environmental exposure and styrene in the exhaled air also suggests that breath styrene level can be a useful indicator for low level styrene exposure, as the method is specific, noninvasive, and rapid.

Environmental and Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Toluene, Styrene, and n-Hexane

Abstract Eighty-four workers exposed to toluene (printing industry), styrene (fiberglass industries), n-hexane, and other solvents (shoe industry) were monitored with a total of 248 sequential

Biological monitoring of styrene in the reinforced plastics industry in Emilia Romagna, Italy

Exposure decreased weakly during the study period in all work categories, but the percentage of measurements exceeding the current biological limit value is still very high, indicating that the control measures implemented are only partially effective for the prevention of styrene exposure.

Biological exposure limits estimated from relations between occupational styrene exposure during a workweek and excretion of mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids in urine

Styrene exposure of 18 workers in fiber-glass reinforced plastic industries was measured for 30-min periods throughout each workday for a week to study the relationship between both exposure and uptake versus excretion of these metabolites.

The ototoxicity of styrene: a review of occupational investigations

Considering the body of evidence as a whole, hearing deficits due to occupational exposure to styrene at low concentrations have not been demonstrated by scientifically reliable argument and there is some suggestion of an association between styrene exposure, occupational noise, and hearing dysfunction.



Human exposure to styrene

  • M. GuilleminD. Bauer
  • Materials Science, Biology
    International archives of occupational and environmental health
  • 1979
The discussion of the data obtained in this study with regard to the toxicity of styrene showed the need for epidemiological field studies using simultaneous air, biological, and medical monitoring.

Human exposure to styrene

The urinary elimination of metabolites correlated well with exposure and the BLV's corresponding to an 8-h exposure at 100 ppm were consistent with earlier laboratory findings, revealing the need for further research on how to reduce styrene exposure.

Monitoring of styrene exposure in the polyester industry.

Analytical methods for styrene in air, for its main metabolites in urine (mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids) and for critical biological function tests were either chosen from the literature or adapted or developed to fit criteria of convenience and reliability.

Determination of urinary mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids in styrene exposed workers and a control population.

High positive correlation was found between post-shift urinary concentrations of metabolites and 8-hour TWA styrene exposure and both MA and total metabolites (MA + PGA) gave correlation coefficient values of 0.96.

Biological monitoring of exposure to styrene by analysis of combined urinary mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids.

The analysis of the post-exposure elimination shows that spot urine sampled in the morning after exposure and analysed for the sum of MA and PGA is the most reliable index for reflecing a preceding exposure to styrene.

Trichloroethylene exposure. Biological monitoring by breath and urine analyses.

A tentative method of biological monitoring is proposed based on the analysis of TCE in the urine or TRI in the alveolar air before and after the exposure being monitored, which appears to be sensitive enough to variations in the inspired concentration to be used as an indicator of a single exposure risk.

Control of industrial exposure to tetrachloroethylene by measuring alveolar concentrations: theoretical approach using a mathematical model

It was concluded that measurement of the postexposure alveolar concentrations could be used to estimate the mean exposure to tetrachloroethylene in most industrial situations.

Effect of alcohol on the kinetics of mandelic acid excretion in volunteers exposed to styrene vapour.

The effect of a dose of alcohol on the kinetics of mandelic acid excretion in four volunteers exposed to 220 mg/m3 styrene has been investigated and it is suggested that the inhibition of the oxidation of this diol is related to the change in NAD +/NADH ratio produced by ethanol metabolism.

Trichloroethylene exposure. Simulation of uptake, excretion, and metabolism using a mathematical model.

The study of the pulmonary elimination of trichloroethylene during single or repeated exposures showed a linear relationship between the alveolar concentration of the solvent approximately 15 hours after the end of the exposure and the quantity of trichoethylene accumulated in the fatty tissues.

Evaluation of hippuric, phenylglyoxylic and mandelic acids in urine as indices of styrene exposure

Comparison of the postexposure levels with respective non-ex exposure levels and supplements with rat exposure experiments revealed hippuric acid to be a poor indicator of styrene exposure at a “moderate degree”, while the other two acids are much more adequate indices.