Human-specific gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and neocortex expansion

@article{Florio2015HumanspecificGA,
  title={Human-specific gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and neocortex expansion},
  author={Marta Florio and Mareike Albert and Elena Taverna and Takashi Namba and Holger Brandl and Eric Lewitus and Christiane Haffner and Alex M Sykes and Fong Kuan Wong and Jula Peters and Elaine Guhr and Sylvia Klemroth and Kay Pr{\"u}fer and Janet Kelso and Ronald Naumann and Ina N{\"u}sslein and Andreas Dahl and Robert Lachmann and Svante P{\"a}{\"a}bo and Wieland B. Huttner},
  journal={Science},
  year={2015},
  volume={347},
  pages={1465 - 1470}
}
Build the builders before the brain Humans are much smarter than mice—key to this is the relative thickness of the human brain's neocortex. Florio et al. combed through genes expressed in the progenitor cells that build the neocortex and zeroed in on one gene found in humans but not in mice. The gene, which seems to differentiate humans from chimpanzees, drives proliferation of the key progenitor cells. Mice expressing this human gene during development built more elaborate brains. Science… 
Human-specific ARHGAP11B is necessary and sufficient for human-type basal progenitor levels in primate brain organoids
TLDR
It is demonstrated that ARHGAP11B is necessary and sufficient to maintain the elevated basal progenitor levels that characterize the fetal human neocortex, suggesting that this human-specific gene was a major contributor to neocortex expansion during human evolution.
Human-specific ARHGAP11B increases size and folding of primate neocortex in the fetal marmoset
TLDR
Functional evidence is provided that ARHGAP11B causes expansion of the primate neocortex and drives changes in development in the nonhuman primate marmoset that reflect the changes in evolution that characterize human neocortical development.
Expression of human‐specific ARHGAP11B in mice leads to neocortex expansion and increased memory flexibility
TLDR
The data are consistent with the notion that neocortex expansion by ARHGAP11B, a gene implicated in human evolution, underlies some of the altered neurobehavioural features observed in the transgenic mice, such as the increased memory flexibility, a neocortex‐associated trait, with implications for the increase in cognitive abilities during human evolution.
Human-specific ARHGAP11B induces hallmarks of neocortical expansion in developing ferret neocortex
TLDR
Human-specific ARHGAP11B can elicit hallmarks of neocortical expansion in developing ferret neocortex, and results in extension of the neurogenic period and an increase in upper-layer neurons.
Title Differences and similarities between human and chimpanzeeneural progenitors during cerebral cortex development
TLDR
The cytoarchitecture, cell type composition, and neurogenic gene expression programs of humans and chimpanzees are remarkably similar, but live imaging of apical progenitor mitosis uncovered a lengthening of prometaphase-metaphase in humans compared to chimpanzees that is specific to proliferating progenitors and not observed in non-neural cells.
Differences and similarities between human and chimpanzee neural progenitors during cerebral cortex development
TLDR
The cytoarchitecture, cell type composition, and neurogenic gene expression programs of humans and chimpanzees are remarkably similar, but live imaging of apical progenitor mitosis uncovered a lengthening of prometaphase-metaphase in humans compared to chimpanzees that is specific to proliferating progenitors and not observed in non-neural cells.
Evolution and cell-type specificity of human-specific genes preferentially expressed in progenitors of fetal neocortex
TLDR
This study uses existing transcriptome datasets to carry out a comprehensive screen for protein-coding genes preferentially expressed in progenitors of fetal human neocortex and identifies 41 additional human genes with progenitor-enriched expression which have orthologs only in primates.
Sustained Pax6 Expression Generates Primate-like Basal Radial Glia in Developing Mouse Neocortex
TLDR
It is demonstrated that sustaining Pax6 expression selectively in BP-genic apical radial glia (aRG) and their BP progeny of embryonic mouse neocortex suffices to induce primate-like progenitor behaviour and imply that sustaining this Pax6 function in BPs could be a key aspect of SVZ enlargement and, consequently, the evolutionary expansion of the neocortex.
Neural progenitor cells and their role in the development and evolutionary expansion of the neocortex
TLDR
Comparative genomic and transcriptomic approaches employed and applied to specific NPC types and subpopulations have revealed two principal sets of molecular changes, one concerns differences in the expression of common genes between species with different degrees of cortical expansion, and the other comprises human‐specific genes or genomic regulatory sequences.
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