Platelets in Inflammatory Disorders: A Pathophysiological and Clinical Perspective.
- Jecko Thachil
- Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis
Platelets are thought to play an important role in the initiation and the progression of a variety of glomerulonephritides. This study examined whether platelets induce production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a chemokine involved in leukocyte recruitment and glomerular injury, by cultured human mesangial cells (MC). To this end, platelets isolated from normal human donors were cocultured with MC at various ratios. MCP-1 synthesis was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Platelets at 1:100 ratio (MC to platelets) induced an approximately 20-fold increase in mesangial MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression through an obligatory cell-to-cell contact-dependent mechanism. Importantly, blockade of the CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) pathway with neutralizing antibodies decreased MCP-1 production by approximately 60%. It was confirmed that CD40 was functionally expressed on MC. Gel-shift assays and inhibitors of phosphorylation were used to demonstrate that activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein tyrosine kinases, and nuclear factor-kappa B activation were essential for MCP-1 production. These data indicate that platelet/MC contact stimulates the production of MCP-1 and may contribute to glomerular inflammatory responses by recruiting leukocytes from the peripheral blood.