Human physiological responses to cold exposure.

@article{Stocks2004HumanPR,
  title={Human physiological responses to cold exposure.},
  author={Jodie M. Stocks and Nigel A. S. Taylor and Michael J Tipton and John E. Greenleaf},
  journal={Aviation, space, and environmental medicine},
  year={2004},
  volume={75 5},
  pages={444-57}
}
Thermal energy is transferred within and between bodies via several avenues, but for most unprotected human cold exposures, particularly during immersion, convective heat loss dominates. Lower tissue temperatures stimulate thermoreceptors, and the resultant afferent flow elicits autonomic homoeostatic responses (thermogenesis and vasoconstriction) that regulate body temperature within a narrow range. The most powerful effector responses occur when both superficial and deep thermoreceptors are… CONTINUE READING

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