Human photoreceptor topography

  title={Human photoreceptor topography},
  author={Christine A. Curcio and Kenneth R. Sloan and Robert E. Kalina and Anita Hendrickson},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Neurology},
Key MethodWe have measured the spatial density of cones and rods in eight whole-mounted human retinas, obtained from seven individuals between 27 and 44 years of age, and constructed maps of photoreceptor density and between-individual variability. The average human retina contains 4.6 million cones (4.08-5.29 million). Peak foveal cone density averages 199,000 cones/mm2 and is highly variable between individuals (100,000-324,000 cones/mm2). The point of highest density may be found in an area as large…

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This study illustrates similarities within the photoreceptor mosaic of these two species and supports the use of the pig retina as a model for human/animal research.

Count and density of human retinal photoreceptors

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The results provide a baseline analysis of individual difference in cone photoreceptor packing density in healthy human eyes as predicted by retinal stretching models, which was significantly lower in myopic eyes than in emmetropic eyes.

Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age.

Cone packing density in the living human retina decreases as a function of age within the foveal center with the largest difference being found at the most central measurement site.

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Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina.

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Tests of Macular Function

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Small-spot sensitivity thresholds in healthy retinas will help to establish the range of normal foveolar function in cell-targeted vision testing and is assumed to be caused by individual cone and bipolar cell weighting at the specific target locations.



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Intravitreal injection of some fluorescent and nonfluorescent tissue-reactive dyes results in selective intracellular staining of a specific population of cones of macaque retina that have been

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The B‐cone group is suggested to be the blue cone population of the human retina, which follows the distribution profile postulated for the blue‐sensitive system from histochemical studies on monkeys and from psychophysical studies on humans.

Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry.

Cone density was greater in the nasal than in the temporal peripheral retina, and this nasotemporal asymmetry was more pronounced in monkey than in human retina.

Vision and resolution in the central retina.

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  • Biology
    Journal of the Optical Society of America
  • 1951
The structure of the retina is consistent, numerically, with resolution acuity at high illumination but does not account for observed changes in acuity as retinal illumination is reduced.

Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein, and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina.

Three-dimensional maps of the patterns of distribution of the different parameters of cGMP, cAMP, protein and the number of cone and rod photoreceptors have been obtained and will serve as baseline data in studies of pathological conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa.

Anatomy of macaque fovea and spatial densities of neurons in foveal representation

  • S. Schein
  • Medicine
    The Journal of comparative neurology
  • 1988
Fine visual sampling in the macaque depends on the high density of cone outer and inner segments in the fovea, and increase in eccentricity finds increasing lateral displacement of the cone's pedicle from its inner segment.