# Human performance on the traveling salesman problem

@article{MacGregor1996HumanPO, title={Human performance on the traveling salesman problem}, author={James N. MacGregor and Thomas C. Ormerod}, journal={Perception \& Psychophysics}, year={1996}, volume={58}, pages={527-539} }

Two experiments on performance on the traveling salesman problem (TSP) are reported. The TSP consists of finding the shortest path through a set of points, returning to the origin. It appears to be an intransigent mathematical problem, and heuristics have been developed to find approximate solutions. The first experiment used 10-point, the second, 20-point problems. The experiments tested the hypothesis that complexity of TSPs is a function of number of nonboundary points, not total number of…

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## 193 Citations

A Comparison of Heuristic and Human Performance on Open Versions of the Traveling Salesperson Problem

- Mathematics, Computer ScienceJ. Probl. Solving
- 2006

Of the three heuristics compared with that of subjects on variants of a well-known combinatorial optimization task, the Traveling Salesperson Problem, the convex hull appeared to result in the best overall fit with human solutions.

Human Performance on Visually Presented Traveling Salesperson Problems with Varying Numbers of Nodes

- Mathematics, Computer ScienceJ. Probl. Solving
- 2006

The most likely polynomial model for describing the relationship between mean solution time and the size of a TSP is linear or near-linear over the range of problem sizes tested, supporting the earlier finding of Graham et al. (2000).

A model of human performance on the traveling salesperson problem

- Psychology, MedicineMemory & cognition
- 2000

A computational model is proposed of how humans solve the traveling salesperson problem (TSP) and may find better solutions than some conventional heuristic algorithms for solving TSPs, and comparative results are reported that support this suggestion.

Simulating Human Performance on the Traveling Salesman Problem

- 2003

This paper reports two empirical studies of human performance on the traveling salesman problem (TSP) and several computational simulations of human performance. Human performance was studied using…

Convex hull or crossing avoidance? Solution heuristics in the traveling salesperson problem

- Psychology, MedicineMemory & cognition
- 2004

The crossing avoidance hypothesis was examined from the perspectives of its capacity to explain existing data, its theoretical adequacy, and its ability to explain the results of three new experiments, which were more consistent with the convex hull than with the crossing avoidance hypotheses.

Global perceptual processing in problem solving: The case of the traveling salesperson

- Medicine, PsychologyPerception & psychophysics
- 1999

It is argued that global perceptual processing may contribute more generally to problem solving and that human performance can complement computational TSP methods.

The traveling salesman problem: A hierarchical model

- Psychology, MedicineMemory & cognition
- 2000

A new algorithm is presented, which is based on a hierarchical pyramid architecture, for solving the Euclidean traveling salesman problem (TSP), which is quite similar to the performance of the subjects.

People Efficiently Explore the Solution Space of the Computationally Intractable Traveling Salesman Problem to Find Near-Optimal Tours

- Medicine, PsychologyPloS one
- 2010

The first demonstration of significant performance improvement on the TSP under repetition and feedback and evidence that human problem-solving may exploit the structure of hard problems paralleling behavior of state-of-the-art heuristics are provided.

Spatial and Contextual Factors in Human Performance on the Travelling Salesperson Problem

- Psychology, MedicinePerception
- 1999

The results of experiment 1 show that high levels of solution quality are maintained in solving larger TSPs than had been investigated previously with human participants, and that the presence of an implied real-world context in the problems has no effect upon performance.

Development of the PEBL Traveling Salesman Problem Computerized Testbed

- Computer ScienceJ. Probl. Solving
- 2015

A computerized version of TSP running in the free and open source Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL), designed to be suitable for use within a larger battery of tests, and to examine both standard and custom TSP node configurations (i.e., problems).

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