Peptidylarginine Deiminases—Roles in Cancer and Neurodegeneration and Possible Avenues for Therapeutic Intervention via Modulation of Exosome and Microvesicle (EMV) Release?
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute a large family of RNA-binding proteins that contain a canonical 35 residue repeat motif. Originally identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, family members are found in protists, fungi, and metazoan but are by far most abundant in plant organelles. Seven examples have been identified in human mitochondria and roles have been tentatively ascribed to each. In this review, we briefly outline each of these PPR proteins and discuss the role each is believed to play in facilitating mitochondrial gene expression.