Human pegivirus (HPgV) infection in sub‐Saharan Africa—A call for a renewed research agenda

  title={Human pegivirus (HPgV) infection in sub‐Saharan Africa—A call for a renewed research agenda},
  author={Shiva Kant Singh and Jason T. Blackard},
  journal={Reviews in Medical Virology},
The human pegivirus (HPgV)—formerly GB virus C—has a beneficial impact on HIV disease progression that has been described in multiple studies. Given the high prevalence of HIV in sub‐Saharan Africa and the continuing need to suppress HIV replication, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the existing data on HPgV infection in sub‐Saharan Africa, with a particular focus on studies of prevalence and the circulating HPgV genotypes. This review also highlights the need for additional… 
Human pegivirus type 1 infection in Asia—A review of the literature
This review highlights the research conducted thus far and emphasizes the need for additional studies on HPgV‐1 across the Asian continent, including the prevalence and circulating genotypes in all Asian countries with data reported.
Human pegivirus 1 in Cabo Verde: prevalence and genotypic distribution among HIV-infected individuals.
The prevalence of HPgV-1 viremia in Cabo Verde agrees with that reported previously in Africa, and Genotypes 1 and 2 cocirculate, with genotype 2 being more common, and HIV/HPgv-1 coinfection was not associated with higher CD4 T cell counts in the studied population.
The Impact of Human Pegivirus on CD4 Cell Count in HIV-Positive Persons in Botswana
It is suggested that HPgV infection is common among HIV-positive individuals in Botswana and has a significant impact on CD4 cell count, which suggests that this virus genotype should be evaluated as a possible predictor of HIV disease progression.
Human pegivirus (HPgV) infection in Ghanaians co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV)
The effect of HPgV on HIV or HBV disease among HIV/HBV co-infected patients was minimal, but there was a trend towards decreased HBV DNA levels inHPgV RNA-positive patients with low CD4 cell count, highlighting the need for prospective studies of HPGV in HIV and hepatitis co- infected patients, especially in those with advanced HIV disease.
Clinical and molecular aspects of human pegiviruses in the interaction host and infectious agent
Background Human pegivirus 1 (HPgV-1) is a Positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ ssRNA) virus, discovered in 1995 as a Flaviviridae member, and the closest human virus linked to HCV. In comparison to
Low prevalence of human pegivirus 1 (HPgV-1) in HTLV-1 carriers from Belém, Pará, North Region of Brazil
The prevalence of HPgV-1 infection is low in HTLV-1 carriers in Belém, Pará, and probably does not alter the clinical course of HTLV -1 infection, however, further studies are still needed.
Role of human Pegivirus infections in whole Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccination and controlled human malaria infection in African volunteers
Investigating whether Pegivirus infection influences vaccine-induced responses and protection in African volunteers undergoing whole P. falciparum sporozoites-based malaria vaccination and controlled human malaria infections found that HPgV-1 infection did not alter PfSPZ Vaccine elicited levels of PfCSP-specific antibody responses and parasite multiplication rates.
Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by human pegivirus type 1-derived peptides is affected by human pegivirus type 1 genotype and HIV-1 coreceptor tropism
The data indicate that the inhibitory effect of peptides derived from HPgV-1 E2 protein is dependent on the genotype, suggesting that coinfection with HPgv-1 GT1 is less likely to confer a beneficial effect on HIV-1 disease progression than GT2.
Human pegivirus isolates characterized by deep sequencing from hepatitis C virus‐RNA and human immunodeficiency virus‐RNA–positive blood donations, France
Analysis of HPgV genomes characterized up to now points out the scarcity of French pegivirus sequences in databases, and investigates 16 French isolates obtained from hepatitis C virus‐RNA and human immunodeficiency virus‐ RNA–positive blood donations following deep sequencing and coupled molecular protocols.
Detection and genetic characterization of porcine pegivirus from pigs in China
Porcine pegiviruses (PPgV) have been first discovered in serum samples from domestic pigs in Germany in 2016 and then in the USA in 2018. To date, there is no documentation with respect to the


Prevalence and Clinical Impact of Human Pegivirus-1 Infection in HIV-1-Infected Individuals in Yunnan, China
It is revealed that HPgV-1 genotype 7 groups exhibited significantly lower HIV-1 viral load and higher CD4+ cell counts, which suggests that HPGV- 1 genotypes 7 may be associated with a better progression of HIV- 1 disease.
Role of GB virus C in modulating HIV disease
There are several reports of a beneficial effect of GBV-C on HIV disease progression in vivo, and different mechanisms to explain these observations have been proposed, including modification of antiviral cytokine production, HIV co-receptor expression, direct inhibition of HIV-1 entry, T-cell activation and Fas-mediated apoptosis.
GB Virus C Coinfections in West African Ebola Patients
Both survival and GBV-C status were associated with age, with older patients having lower survival rates and intermediate-age patients (21 to 45 years) having the highest rate of Ebola virus infection.
Effect of GB virus C co-infection on response to generic HAART in African patients with HIV-1 clade C infection
GBV-C co-infection may be associated with a beneficial effect on African AIDS patients treated with generic HAART and has a faster decline in HIV viral load.
Hepatitis C virus infections in the Democratic Republic of Congo exhibit a cohort effect.
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  • Biology, Medicine
    Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
  • 2013
Evidence for Within-Host Genetic Recombination among the Human Pegiviral Strains in HIV Infected Subjects
The present study revealed that multiple infections with divergent HPgV viral strains may have caused within-host genetic recombination, predominantly in male patients, and therefore, could be the major driver in shaping genetic diversity of HPGV.
Deep sequencing identifies two genotypes and high viral genetic diversity of human pegivirus (GB virus C) in rural Ugandan patients.
Analysis of intra-host viral genetic diversity revealed that total single-nucleotide polymorphism frequency was approximately tenfold lower in HPgV than in hepatitis C virus, which suggests that this region would be a useful locale to study the interactions and co-evolution of these viruses.
African origin of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus 1
Recombination among GB virus C (GBV-C) isolates in the United States.
Evaluated full-length GBV-C genomes from four individuals with HIV/HCV co-infection in the United States to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of GBv-C genotypes and provide important molecular data on this understudied virus.
Cytokine/chemokine expression associated with Human Pegivirus (HPgV) infection in women with HIV
Further study of cytokine/chemokine regulation by HPgV may ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents to treat HIV infection and/or the design of vaccine strategies that mimic the “protective” effects ofHPgV replication.