Human noroviruses recognize sialyl Lewis x neoglycoprotein.

@article{Rydell2009HumanNR,
  title={Human noroviruses recognize sialyl Lewis x neoglycoprotein.},
  author={Gustaf E. Rydell and Jonas Nilsson and J{\'e}sus Rodr{\'i}guez-D{\'i}az and Nathalie Ruvoën-Clouet and Lennart Svensson and Jacques Le Pendu and G{\"o}ran Larson},
  journal={Glycobiology},
  year={2009},
  volume={19 3},
  pages={
          309-20
        }
}
The carbohydrate binding characteristics of a norovirus GII.3 (Chron1) and a GII.4 (Dijon) strain were investigated using virus-like particles (VLPs) and saliva samples from 81 individuals genotyped for FUT2 (secretor) and FUT3 (Lewis) and phenotyped for ABO and Lewis blood groups. The two VLPs showed a typical secretor-gene-dependent binding and bound significantly stronger to saliva from A, B, and AB than from O individuals (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001) but did not bind to any samples from… 

Lewis histo-blood group α1,3/α1,4 fucose residues may both mediate binding to GII.4 noroviruses.

This study investigated the possibilities of the Lewis α1,3/α1,4 fucoses as mediators of binding of GII.4 noroviruses to Lewis antigens and suggested the possibility of two receptor binding modes for Lewis HBGAs: the "Secretor pose" and the "Lewis pose".

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Tulane virus recognizes sialic acids as cellular receptors

Tulane virus (TV), a cultivable primate calicivirus, also recognizes SAs in addition to the previously known TV-HBGA interactions, and Maackia amurensis leukoagglutinin (MAL), a lectin that recognizes the α-2,3 linked SAs, is found, by which MAL promoted TV infectivity in cell culture.

Norovirus, causative agent of winter vomiting disease, exploits several histo-blood group glycans for adhesion

A wide variety of histo-blood group glycoconjugates recognized by human noroviruses are described, suggesting novel approaches for design of glycomimetics for norovirus anti-adhesion therapy.

Norwalk virus-like particles bind specifically to A, H and difucosylated Lewis but not to B histo-blood group active glycosphingolipids

For the first time specific binding of Norwalk virus VLPs to type 1 and type 2 chain glycosphingolipids (GSLs) carrying ABH and Lewis antigens is demonstrated.

Noroviruses and histo‐blood groups: the impact of common host genetic polymorphisms on virus transmission and evolution

Studies of NoV–HBGA interactions together with phylogenetic analyses and the epidemiologic survey of strains indicate that NoV transmission and evolution depend on both the establishment of herd immunity and the genetic resistance of many individuals, which confers herd innate protection by restricting NoV circulation.

Alternative attachment factors and internalization pathways for GIII.2 bovine noroviruses.

Results show that, in addition to a galactosyl residue, sialic acid could also be involved in binding to susceptible cells, and increase the knowledge on bovine norovirus cell interactions.

Glycan Recognition in Human Norovirus Infections

The discovery of HBGAs are described as genetic susceptibility factors for HuNoV infection and the potential for using the HIE model to answer unresolved questions on viral interactions with HBG as well as other glycans is discussed.
...

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