Human monkeypox – After 40 years, an unintended consequence of smallpox eradication

  title={Human monkeypox – After 40 years, an unintended consequence of smallpox eradication},
  author={Karl Simpson and David L. Heymann and Colin Stewart Brown and W. John Edmunds and Jesper Elsgaard and Paul E M Fine and Hubertus Hochrein and Nicole A. Hoff and Andrew Green and Chikwe Ihekweazu and Terry C. Jones and Swaib Abubaker Lule and Jane Maclennan and Andrea M McCollum and Barbara M{\"u}hlemann and Emily Nightingale and Dimie Ogoina and Adesola Ogunleye and Brett W. Petersen and Jacqueline Powell and Ollie Quantick and Anne W. Rimoin and David Ulaeato and Andy Wapling},
  pages={5077 - 5081}

State-of-the-art on monkeypox virus: an emerging zoonotic disease

The clinical significance of MPXV and its unique infection characteristics are summarized and worries regarding its resurgence in global health are shed on.

The lurking threat of monkeypox in current times

The Outbreak of Human Monkeypox in 2022: A Changing Epidemiology or an Impending Aftereffect of Smallpox Eradication?

Lacking travel connections to Africa among most current reported cases in 2022 raises an alarm about the changing epidemiology of the disease which warrants a stringent epidemiological surveillance to prevent further escalation of the current outbreak in non-endemic countries.

Monkeypox: A Neglected Viral Zoonotic Disease

Global health policymakers are guided on the impending danger of neglecting monkeypox and the recommendation of strategies to effectively strengthen the disease surveillance system in combating this public health threat is recommended.

Monkeypox: A Comprehensive Review of Transmission, Pathogenesis, and Manifestation

Previously endemic to regions of Africa, the majority of monkeypox cases associated with the 2022 outbreak are being noted in countries around Europe and in the western hemisphere.

Monkeypox as an emerging infectious disease: the ophthalmic implications

The 2022 outbreak of monkeypox is of worldwide significance. There has been a rapid escalation in case numbers despite efforts to contain it and the WHO has declared it a Public Health Emergency of


A prompt diagnosis of imported monkeypox can help prevent this disease from becoming established outside Africa in potential animal reservoirs, such as prairie dogs or released exotic pets.

Monkeypox: How Globalization, Host Immunity, and Viral Evolution Create a New Pathogen.

A large global outbreak in 2022 has demonstrated changing epidemiology and increased person-to-person transmission and most cases have been in younger people without previous smallpox vaccination and in men who have sex with men, a previously unrecognized mode of transmission.

Monkeypox: An Update on Current Knowledge and Research Advances

A general introduction to MPXV / MPX along with progress in diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, and prevention and control strategies for tackling this global health emergency is presented.

Monkeypox: An old foe, with new challenges




The transmission potential of monkeypox virus in human populations.

The findings support the recommendation of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication to cease routine smallpox vaccination in monkeypox endemic areas, but to encourage continued epidemiological surveillance.

Reemergence of monkeypox: prevalence, diagnostics, and countermeasures.

Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease that occurs mostly in the rain forests of central and western Africa. However, the disease recently emerged in the United States in imported wild rodents

Major increase in human monkeypox incidence 30 years after smallpox vaccination campaigns cease in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Improved surveillance and epidemiological analysis is needed to better assess the public health burden and develop strategies for reducing the risk of wider spread of infection.

Transmissibility of the Monkeypox Virus Clades via Respiratory Transmission: Investigation Using the Prairie Dog-Monkeypox Virus Challenge System

Respiratory transmission appears to be less efficient than those of previous studies assessing contact as a mechanism of transmission within the prairie dog MPXV animal model.

Outbreak of human monkeypox in Nigeria in 2017–18: a clinical and epidemiological report

Further Assessment of Monkeypox Virus Infection in Gambian Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) Using In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

The results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched Rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

Epidemiologic and Ecologic Investigations of Monkeypox, Likouala Department, Republic of the Congo, 2017

Investigation of suspected human monkeypox cases in the Republic of the Congo found only specimens from Cricetomys giant pouched rats showed presence of orthopoxvirus antibodies, adding evidence to this species’ involvement in the transmission and maintenance of monkeypox virus in nature.

A tale of two clades: monkeypox viruses.

Analysis of clinical, laboratory and epidemiological features of confirmed human monkeypox case-patients, using data from outbreaks in the USA and the Congo Basin, and the results suggested that human disease pathogenicity was associated with the viral strain.

A systematic review of the epidemiology of human monkeypox outbreaks and implications for outbreak strategy

Current evidence suggests there has been an increase in total monkeypox cases reported by year in the DRC irrespective of advancements in the national Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system and the geographical pattern reported in the Nigeria outbreak suggests a possible new and widespread zoonotic reservoir requiring further investigation and research.

Characterization of Monkeypox virus infection in African rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.)

It is indicated that MPXV causes significant pathology in African rope squirrels and infected rope Squirrels shed large quantities of virus, supporting their role as a potential source of MPXv transmission to humans and other animals in endemic MPX regions.