Human lice and their control.

  title={Human lice and their control.},
  author={Ian F Burgess},
  journal={Annual review of entomology},
  • I. Burgess
  • Published 2004
  • Biology
  • Annual review of entomology
Current research on human louse biology has focused on the long-standing debate about speciation of head and body lice but using new tools of DNA and enzyme analysis. These studies have indicated that head and body lice from the same geographical zone may be more closely allied than insects inhabiting the same ecological niche in other regions. However, the majority of research over the past decade has involved clinical aspects including transmission, treatment, and the appearance and… 

Nuclear Genetic Diversity in Human Lice (Pediculus humanus) Reveals Continental Differences and High Inbreeding among Worldwide Populations

This study presents the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions.

Parasitic Lice Help to Fill in the Gaps of Early Hominid History

The biology of the human pubic louse is examined in detail, which was transferred from a gorilla ancestor to a human ancestor about 3–4 million years ago, providing evidence of when humans lost their body hair and what habitats these early humans were using.

Molecular survey of the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis in Thailand and its potential role for transmitting Acinetobacter spp.

The phylogenetic tree based on the COI gene revealed that head lice in Thailand are clearly classified into two clades (A and C), and pathogenic Acinetobacter spp.

Lice as Vectors of Bacterial Diseases

Since economic instability and wars cause large migrations of humans, louse infestations become more prevalent, increasing the risk of transmission of neglected diseases and P. humanus humanus is relevant as a vector of Rickettsia prowazekii (louse-borne epidemic typhus), Bartonella quintana (trench or 5-day fever), and Borrelia recurrentis (louses-borne relapsing fever).

Management and Treatment of Human Lice

An overview on managing and treating human lice is presented and new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance are highlighted.

Diversity of mitochondrial genes and predominance of Clade B in different head lice populations in the northwest of Iran

This first study investigated deeply the field populations of Pediculus and documented two clades in the Middle East, and given the role of cytb in monitoring population groups, application of this marker is suggested for future epigenetic studies to evaluate the factors affecting the abundance of these clades.

Cytogenetic Features of Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae)

The male and female karyotypes, and male meiosis of head and body lice, and the chromatin structure by means of C-banding are described and relevant information is provided to be used in mapping studies of genes associated with sex determination and environmental sensing and response.

Natural products and their application to the control of head lice: an evidence-based review

It is concluded that large numbers of plant products, such as neem and tea tree oils, offer promise for new compounds to treat head lice infestation and it is possible that plant products will replace chemical insecticides on the market in future.

Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans

It is shown that modern human head lice, Pediculus humanus, are composed of two ancient lineages, whose origin predates modern Homo sapiens by an order of magnitude (ca. 1.18 million years).

Repellency against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis)

A combination of an extract of the seeds of the plant Vitex agnus castus (monk pepper) and the compound paramenthan-3,8-diol act synergistically and are able to protect human hair for at least 7 h from invasion of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis).



Human lice and their management.

Body Lice as Tools for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Reemerging Diseases

Assessment of the occurrence and prevalence of the three agents described above in more than 600 body lice collected from infested individuals in the African countries of Congo, Zimbabwe, and Burundi, in France, in Russia, and in Peru confirmed the presence of R. prowazekii and Bartonella quintana in louse collected from all locations except the Congo.

Evidence from Mitochondrial DNA That Head Lice and Body Lice of Humans (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) are Conspecific

Frequency of COI haplotypes can be used to study maternal gene flow among populations of head and body lice and thus transmission of lice among their human hosts.

Head lice resistant to pyrethroid insecticides in Britain

Head lice found in parts of Israel and France have acquired resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides permethrin and phenothrin, and in Britain most failures of treatment reported to us have been attributable to causes other than resistance, including shorter than expected residual protection after treatment withpermethrin.

Management of insecticide resistance in head lice Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculicidae)

Using this methodology, any health care worker can assess the reasons for treatment failure, whether due to inappropriate application, resistance or failure to kill louse eggs; decide the appropriate treatment approach and provide support for families, without becoming intensely involved themselves.

The Louse

THE louse of man, Pediculus humanus,is concerned with the transmission of the microorganisms of at least three of his diseases. From the medical point of view, therefore, it is a creature of

Clinical and laboratory trials employing carbaryl against the human head‐louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (de Geer)

  • J. Maunder
  • Biology
    Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • 1981
It was shown that the only known form of malathion resistance in any of the human lice does not extend to carbaryl, and the ovicidal effect was also demonstrated in the laboratory, but shown to be highly thermo‐labile.

Systemic activity of ivermectin on the human body louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

The mortality of nymphs and female lice fed on rabbits treated with 200 micrograms/kg ivermectin was very high during the first two to three days, then declined sharply, reaching the level of the controls on day six.

A resistance of head lice (Pediculus capitis) to permethrin in Czech Republic.

The lotion containing 0.3% of malathion (Diffusil H92 M) has been fully effective against the resistant lice and when introduced into the practice, it quickly reduced the infestation of children in primary schools.

Intragenomic variation in ITS2 rDNA in the louse of humans, Pediculus humanus: ITS2 is not a suitable marker for population studies in this species

It is concluded that the ITS2 of the head lice and body lice of humans is not a useful marker of populations for Pediculus humanus.