Human keratinocytes express functional Toll-like receptor 3, 4, 5, and 9.

@article{Lebre2007HumanKE,
  title={Human keratinocytes express functional Toll-like receptor 3, 4, 5, and 9.},
  author={Maria Cristina Lebre and Angelic M G van der Aar and Lisa G. M. van Baarsen and Toni M. M. van Capel and Joost H. N. Schuitemaker and Martien L. Kapsenberg and Esther C de Jong},
  journal={The Journal of investigative dermatology},
  year={2007},
  volume={127 2},
  pages={331-41}
}
Keratinocytes are continuously in contact with external stimuli and have the capacity to produce several soluble mediators. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized, among others, by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The functional responses of keratinocytes to different PAMPs have not yet been fully established. Here we show that keratinocytes constitutively express TLR1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10 mRNA, but not TLR7 and 8. Stimulation of keratinocytes with TLR3, 4, 5, and 9… CONTINUE READING