OBJECTIVE The authors report epidemiologic, clinical, para clinical, and evolutive aspects of arthritis related to HIV in an AIDS endemic country. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study was made in the rheumatology department of the Brazzaville University Teaching Hospital during 15 years and 6 months, on 3.042 in-patients among whom 306 (10%) were positive for HIV, 220 (7.2%) presented with a rheumatologic manifestation, and 158 (71.8%) with HIV related arthritis. RESULTS The 158 patients included 91 men (57.6%), 67 women (42.4%), average 34.5 years of age, ranging from 15 to 61, all heterosexual. 99 patients (62.7%) were in the B stage, 40 (25.3%) in the C stage, and 19 (12.2%) in the A stage. Arthritis was polyarthritis (83.5%) or oligoarthritis (16.5%), symmetrical (97.5%), prevailing on the lower limbs (99.3%) with involvement of the great toe in 23% of cases. There was an important inflammatory syndrome with an erythrocyte sedimentation rate exceeding 100 mm for the 1st hour in 63.3% of the cases. Rhumatoid factors were negative. Synovial fluid was sterile, without microcrystals, and inflammatory. X-rays were normal. This non-destructive arthritis, evolved by successive bouts, and resolved in 2 to 5 weeks with NSAIDs and did not meet Amor nor European spondyloarthropathy criteria. CONCLUSION Arthritis related to HIV represents the principal expression of nonseptic rheumatologic HIV manifestations in Congo.