Therapeutic proteins with molecular weights lower than 40 kDa often have short serum half-lives due to their susceptibility to serum proteases and rapid renal clearance. Chemical derivatization, such as PEGylation, or expression as serum albumin fusions increases molecular mass and overcome these problems but at the expense of decreased bioactivity. Here we applied a new method that yields biologically potent recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) with increased serum half-life when expressed as an arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) in tobacco BY-2 cells. Thus, rhGH was expressed with 10 repeats of the AGP glycomodule Ser-Hyp (SO) at the C-terminus (rhGH-(SO)10). We also expressed rhGH as an AGP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion, designated rhGH-(SO)10-EGFP, to assess the cellular distribution of the glycoprotein, which was mainly extracellular. Recombinant hGH-(SO)10 bound the hGH receptor with an affinity similar to that of a rhGH standard, stimulated the same intracellular signaling pathway as hGH, but possessed an in vivo serum half-life more than sixfold that of the hGH control. Furthermore, rhGH-(SO)10 gave a 500 fold greater secreted yield than the non-glycosylated control rhGH that was also targeted for secretion. Detailed analysis of the rhGH-(SO)10 glycans indicated a conserved structure with relatively little microheterogeneity and an average size of 25 monosaccharide residues. These results were consistent with earlier work expressing interferon α2b as an AGP chimera and further demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to the production of long-acting, biologically potent therapeutic proteins by plant cells.