Human figure drawings of gender-problem and school-problem boys

@article{Skilbeck1975HumanFD,
  title={Human figure drawings of gender-problem and school-problem boys},
  author={W. M. Skilbeck and P. Bentler and J. Bates},
  journal={Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
  year={1975},
  volume={3},
  pages={191-199}
}
In this study 19 boys aged 4 through 13 years referred for gender problems were compared with 35 similar-aged boys referred for school problems on variables derived from sets of human figure drawings. The results indicated that gender-problem boys, relative to school-problem boys, were more likely to draw female figures in response to a Draw-a-Person (DAP) instruction, were more likely to draw figures with good rather than average body proportion, tended to draw more articles of clothing on… Expand

Topics from this paper

Human figure drawings of gender-problem children: A comparison to sibling, psychiatric, and normal controls
TLDR
The Draw-a-Person test was used to evaluate a number of questions regarding children referred for potential problems in their gender-identity development and found the gender-referred children were more likely to draw an opposite-sex person when requested to “draw a person” than were the other three groups. Expand
Gender-deviant boys compared with normal and clinical control boys
TLDR
Gender-problem sons were seen as relatively inactive and introverted, and were non-significantly lower than the clinical control boys in perceived behavior problems, but both groups had marginally more problems than the normal boys. Expand
Draw-a-Person test: The sex of the first-drawn figure revisited
This study investigated one of the Draw-a-Person test (DAP) indicators: the sex of the first-drawn figure. The developmental trajectory of same-sex figures was explored in a control sample, while theExpand
Indicators of feminine gender identity in latency-aged boys in the Draw a Person and the Rorschach tests.
TLDR
Seven diagnostic indicators were examined for their potential to identify latency aged boys who had feminine gender identity and using these indicators in combination reduced the false positive and negative rates associated with each individual indicator. Expand
Projective Test Findings for Boys with Gender Disturbance: Draw-a-Person Test, IT Scale, and Make-a-Picture Story Test
TLDR
The use of intrapsychic phenomena of fantasy and self-perception as measured by these projective tests for the diagnosis of gender disturbance in male children and adolescents is validated. Expand
Assessment and Treatment of Childhood Gender Problems
Sex-role development and the normal processes of gender identification have been investigated by child psychologists for several decades (Maccoby, 1966; Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974; Mischel, 1970;Expand
A Parent-Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children
TLDR
It is concluded that this parent-report gender identity questionnaire has excellent psychometric properties and can serve as a useful screening device for front-line clinicians, for whom more extensive, expensive, and time-consuming assessment procedures may be precluded. Expand
Draw-a-person test: Implications for gender identification
TLDR
Human figure drawings were collected from 50 gender dysphoric adults and compared with the drawings of 84 adult evening-school students and college sophomores to study gender identity formation and DAP. Expand
Build-a-Person Technique: an examination of the validity of human-figure features as evidence of childhood sexual abuse.
TLDR
No support for the validity of the human-figure features under examination as evidence of childhood sexual abuse, was found. Expand
Two subgroups of gender-problem children
TLDR
The cross-gender role behavior of gender-referred children who met the DSM-III criteria was generally more extreme than that of their non-DSM-III counterparts, and these two diagnostically defined subgroups did not differ in the degree of their behavioral and emotional disturbance. Expand
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 13 REFERENCES
Measurement of deviant gender development in boys.
TLDR
Age-trend analyses showed an overall tendency for normal 5-10year-old boys to show less cross-gender behavior (feminine behavior) with increasing age; however, specific cross- gender behaviors had low frequencies even at the youngest ages. Expand
Gender role abnormalities in boys: An analysis of clinical ratings
TLDR
Clinical ratings made on a series of 29 boys, aged 5–13, and their families who had been referred to a project dealing with gender disturbance indicated 4 orthogonal factors: specific effeminate behaviors; normalcy of family environment and childhood adjustment; Factor III, family overprotectiveness and associated fearfulness in the child; and Factor IV, social unresponsiveness and aversiveness in the children. Expand
Play Activities of Normal and Effeminate Boys.
A sixty-four-ite m parent-report Games Inventory was constructed to measure play patterns in normal and gender-deviant boys. Three scales (Feminine, Preschool Games; Masculine, Nonathletic Games; andExpand
It-scale for children and Draw-a-Person test: 30 feminine vs. 25 masculine boys.
TLDR
F feminine boys and masculine boys, aged 4-10, were administered the It-Scale for Children and the Draw-a-Person Test and scored similarly to published norms for boys. Expand
Behavioral treatment of deviant sex-role behaviors in a male child.
TLDR
This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child who had been psychologically evaluated as manifesting "childhood cross-gender identity" and suggests a preliminary step toward correcting pathological sex-role development in boys. Expand
Playroom toy preferences of fifteen masculine and fifteen feminine boys
This study explored the hypothesis that young boys described by parents as showing feminine behavior prefer the playthings of girls when given access to girls' and boy's toys. Fifteen boys, agedExpand
The role of familial factors in persistent effeminate behavior in boys.
  • B. Zuger
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The American journal of psychiatry
  • 1970
TLDR
In most cases the parents' relationship with each other and with the sons was good and the boys' closeness to their mothers and distance from their fathers appeared to reflect their interests from the beginning. Expand
Empirical evaluations of human figure drawings: 1957-1966.
  • C. Swensen
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychological bulletin
  • 1968
...
1
2
...